Ap world history essay grading rubrics
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Brutus in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Brutus emerges as an intricate character as well as the play's catastrophic hero. Through his soliloquies, one gains an insight into the complexities of his characters. He is an influential public figure as well as a loving husband, a distinguished military leader, a master to his servants, and a friend (Shakespeare 12). His conflicting values battle with each other in his mind. Various questions are raised after he assassinates Caesar. One such question happens to ap world history grading, be based on the light of his friendship with Caesar and whether the assassination is a noble act of selflessness or a callous evil act. One also wonders whether the paragraph act has happened as a result of foul indifference to the ties of friendship and failure to ap world history essay grading rubrics, be moved by Caesar's power. As a director, these are some of the qualities I would look for in a character playing the role of Brutus. The character acting this role ought to on the importance of education, be idealistic. In the play, Brutus's unyielding idealism happens to be his greatest virtue, as well as his deadly flaw.
Brutus could be viewed as a noble Roman citizen whose self ambitions do not dominate other motivations (Shakespeare 14). Essay Grading Rubrics. Despite the fact that Caesar happens to be a very close to him, Brutus chooses Rome over friendship. As a director, I would hold auditions to help me determine the abortion essay most appropriate person to ap world history grading, play Brutus' character. One who plays this character should be strong willed, which also applies to other characters as well. Three Essay. Brutus seems to have naive idealism as shown in several instances. His commitment to the course leads to various miscalculations. In an effort to curtail violence, he ignores the advice given by Cassius to grading, allow the conspirators to kill Antony (Shakespeare 65). Essay. He disregards Cassius once more by grading rubrics allowing him to cd cover essay, speak at Caesar's funeral. This results in Brutus' forfeiting the authority of having the last word on the assassination. Consequently, this allows Antony to incite the people to riot against Anthony and his conspirators.
The character of Brutus should also appear confused. This would go in line with the part of Brutus who seems to be torn between his love for ap world Rome and his love for Caesar. He admits to having been at war with himself to Cassius. His confusion allows Cassius to sway him and encourage him to join in the assassination scheme against Caesar (Shakespeare 18). He falls into Cassius' trap without realizing that Cassius was acting out of jealousy. Website. Being a trusting man, Brutus believes that Cassius and his conspirators both share his noble motives. Cassius uses Brutus confusion to coerce him to join Caesar's assassination. He feels that Brutus involvement would make the grading rubrics people respect his noble character thus accept the death more easily. Therefore, the character taking on simple a thesis, Brutus's role should appear confused and unsure of advises given to ap world grading, him. This would aid in enacting this character as both noble and at war with his inner self. Brutus could also be referred to as a stoic character.
Despite Cassius' efforts at persuading Brutus to join his cause, Brutus is already thinking of killing Caesar. This could be clearly brought out by the time when Brutus happens to be the first to state that Caesar should be killed (Shakespeare 23). He believes that once Caesar accepts the crown offered by Antony, he would become harsh and stingy. He believes that only his death would save him from such danger and paragraph persuasive agony. This character happens to be portrayed during his wife's death. Although they seem to be close, Brutus does not weep over her death. As a director, this would be an important aspect when selecting a character to play Brutus's role.
The character should appear to be stoic and callous. This would let the character to ap world essay rubrics, have a different view of all the circumstances that happen around his life. The character should also be an optimist. This could be passed on the character depicted by Brutus who happens to paragraph essay, be an optimistic person. He only sees the good in others thus underestimating the threat that others pose. He underestimates the dangers that Antony poses to their plans in assassinating Caesar (Shakespeare 34). His optimistic character leaves him open to deception and manipulation by essay rubrics those around him. Cd Cover Essay. He goes against Cassius warning that Antony would sway the people against the conspirators if he is ap world history grading rubrics involved in their scheme. Brutus disagrees on the plan to paragraph persuasive essay, kill Anthony by stating that he did not wish to be viewed as a butcher. After the assassination, Brutus thinks that he could use logical words in persuading Anthony to history essay rubrics, join in their cause. Although he pretends to be, Antony is not persuaded and best university for writing turns against them during Caesar's funeral.
This later causes him a lot of problems that eventually leads to his suicide. This is the most important character while making a film on history essay grading rubrics, Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. It would allow the viewers to understand the reasons toward the university tragic death of rubrics, Brutus, who happens to be noble to the cause that would save the entire Roman Empire. The actor playing this role should appear optimistic and easily manipulated. This would make his other actions easy to be performed as Brutus. Persuasive Essay. Brutus could also be considered as heroic. In the play, his noble actions and thoughts eventually resulted in his death. He decides to end his death rather than face the humiliation of being taken as a prisoner by Antony (Shakespeare 72). His death could be scrutinized as a form of self sacrifice, which Brutus recognizes with a lot of serenity. This noble act endears him to the viewers who become aware of his noble intentions. Even his enemy, Antony, states this as he stands over his lifeless body.
Such a role should be given to a character that would leave a lot of history grading, questions to the audience. As a director, I would direct the actors to play these noble performances with a lot of serenity and my essay selflessness. At the end of the play, the characters would leave the audience with a lot of questions such as whether Brutus is indeed an honorable man or just a murderer cruel enough to kill his best friend. Despite his good intentions, a lot of ap world history essay grading, problems arise due to his participation in three persuasive essay, a bloody execution. This would give the history essay grading audience the simple a thesis opportunity to make their own decisions on Brutus as a character in history essay rubrics, the play.
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How to Write an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps. A CV or curriculum vitae is an overview of your artistic professional history and achievements. Grading Rubrics. Although it looks similar to a resume, it contains different elements which are only related to way to write a thesis your artistic professional practice. One mistake emerging artists often make in writing their CVs is trying to oversell their work. Less is more. Ap World History Essay. Your CV should be neatly organized, and only include information pertinent to your artistic career. What should you include on a CV? Here is university for writing where how to history essay grading rubrics compose one in write, 10 steps:
Often, more established artists will keep it simple. History Essay Grading Rubrics. This is because their CV is usually referenced as a biography rather than a resume. Damian Hirst (b. 1965, UK) However, you can include contact information if you are sending out your CV to cd cover essay galleries in history, the hopes that they will reply: Damian Hirst, (b. To Write. 1965, UK) Either of these formats is appropriate for an artist’s CV. Just keep in mind that you should only include your website if it directly relates to your artistic practice. You may have attended post-secondary school for ap world grading rubrics art, or you might be a self-taught, mentored, or otherwise educated artist.
Generally speaking, this section of a CV relates to institutional education specifically in the field of visual arts. To Write My Essay. If you do have post-secondary education in the arts field, include the school(s), the grading, year(s) that you graduated, and the degree(s): University of British Columbia, Master of Fine Arts, 2009. Emily Carr University, Bachelor of to write Fine Arts, 2005. If you do not have a degree in ap world history grading, the visual arts field, fear not. This section of the CV is best for writing not a pre-requisite for exhibitions or gallery representation. The only thing to note is that you should not put down any other type of education (high school graduation, degree in business management), unless it very directly relates to rubrics the artwork that you make. Leaving this section off of university for writing your CV is perfectly acceptable. Beginning with your most recent, you should list your exhibitions in a manner similar to this: 2011 Title of Show , Museum of Modern Art, NY. 2010 I’ve been showing a lot lately , Galerie Espace, Montreal.
If you have a large number of ap world rubrics exhibitions, you can split them into two or more categories: solo exhibitions, group exhibitions, and even duo exhibitions. This helps define in what capacity your work was shown (you don’t want to cd cover essay undersell your solo show at ap world history essay rubrics the MoMA.) A method often used by artists is to abortion list “selected” exhibitions, ie, the ap world essay grading rubrics, heading would read “selected group exhibitions”. This has benefits whether you have a lot of essay exhibitions or not: if you have lots, you can weed out the ap world history rubrics, exhibitions that are no longer relevant to your career. If you don’t have a lot of exhibitions, you are assuring the reader that they are not looking at a short list, but rather your most relevant history. In this section of your CV, you can include any articles in which you or your art appeared. If it is an article, it should include the author, title, publication, volume, publication date, and page number: Coupland, Douglas: “Why I Love This Artwork”, Canadian Art Magazine, vol. 12, February 2011, p. Best For Writing. 55-60.
If your work appeared on the cover of a publication, you can format your information like this: Canadian Art Magazine, Cover, vol. Ap World Essay Grading Rubrics. 12, February 2011. If writing about cd cover essay your artwork or your artwork itself appears in a book, the formatting should read: Schwabsky, Barry (Compiler), Vitamin P: New Perspectives in ap world essay, Painting , Phiadon Press 2004, p. Best. 78. For further information and history grading rubrics, other examples of MLA format, there any many resources online.
As an example, here is SFU’s citation guide for MLA style . Once I entered a competition to paint banners for a small city’s Christmas celebration. I requested the banner be returned when the competition was over, but they refused to return it. Website. Now I put “City of history essay _____” under the best, public collections section of my CV. We both win! Generally, the ap world history rubrics, “collections” portion of your CV is to list public institutions which own your artwork. This could be museums, corporate collections, or even municipalities or agencies. They can simply be listed under the heading collections:
The Vancouver Art Gallery. The Canada Council Art Bank. The Colart Collection. If you only have artwork in private collections and you wish to include this section on your CV, you should not list the name of the collector unless 1. Website My Essay. they are well-known as important collectors of ap world history essay grading rubrics art, and 2. have explicitly agreed to be listed on your CV in whatever venue it gets published (the web, etc). If several people own your artwork in private collections and you would like to note that, you can list them like this: Private collection, Calgary AB. Private collection, Vancouver, BC.
Just don’t go to overboard with the list– if you really have lots, you’ll look more understated and impressive by inserting something like this: Works held in private collections in Canada, the United States, Germany, and New Zealand. If you have any published writing relating to either your own practice or that of my essay others, you can list it here in grading rubrics, proper MLA format: “This Artwork is Awesome”, Awesome exhibition catalogue, Vancouver Art Gallery, 2006. The above points are the most common and a thesis, usually the most notable elements which artists include on their CVs. However, depending on ap world history essay grading rubrics, your practice, there may be a number of other professional and artistic points of interest to write a thesis list. Here are some examples: This is a space to list any teaching positions you may have had, either as a faculty member or as a guest lecturer or speaker. You should only history grading rubrics, include those related specifically to your practice or to visual arts: 2009, Guest lecturer, Emily Carr University. 2007, Sessional instructor, SFU. If, as well as being an website my essay artist you have also undertaken curatorial projects (as so many artists seem to do now), you can list them simply as the exhibition itself, or, add on a brief explaination:
2011, “Drawings”, Richmond Art Gallery. 2010, “Paintings”, Or Gallery, co-curated by ap world grading rubrics Damian Hirst. Some artists choose to list awards and / or grants they have received. Three Paragraph Persuasive. If you decide to include this, the list should all be specifically related to grading rubrics your artistic practice, unless it is extremely notable, such as the Nobel Peace Prize: 2011, Canada Council grant. 2010, BC Arts Council grant. Artist’s residencies you may have attended are good to include on your CV as they show a dedication to your practice and to cd cover essay your professional development: 2010, Studio residency, School of Visual Arts, New York. One of the best ways to ap world essay start writing your CV is to see how other artists do it. In addition to the categories listed above, there are many different professional practices or ways of organizing your information. Many galleries or artist’s themselves post CVs on their website, so they are easily accessible.
A few to check out: 143 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps ” Thanks so much, great information. really great,, I was struggling on essay on the of education in india, puting one together, The information online is ap world grading rubrics very conflicting when it comes to artists CV’s.
thia article only applies to artists with sufficient experience and various accomplishments such that this article would provide no value, with no usefulness or relevance to artists who are seeking advice on creating a resume. Hi Bradley– I’d be happy to give you other suggestions for your artist CV. Simple Way To Write A Thesis. What kind of artistic experience do you have, and history grading rubrics, what were you thinking of including on your CV? What would you reccommend to write in an unexperienced artist?s cv? I don?t even have shown my work in a gallery, do you think it is a must to do this? What would be the three paragraph persuasive, previous steps to writing a cv? I am interested in applying for a contest but I always end up not applying because of the cv.
Wow. This blog is such a fantastic resource! I am thrilled to have found it this afternoon! Cheers! If you are creating a resume for an art teacher position, do you still include all the info you pointed out? Or do you create more of ap world history a standard resume (objective, job history, etc.)? Do they want to see if your work has been in galleries, etc? Hi Tanya, I would still use all the info listed above, but perhaps pare it down to include only the “highlights.” Then you can also include standard employment info from a regular resume, as well as references.
Cheers! Thanks for the info. Also, should I put experience first, then the highlights of CV? Also, is their a max for cd cover essay number of pages, because I know on my standard employment resume you shouldn’t have more than 2 pages. Apologies for the delayed reply! I agree experience first and then CV highlights. I’d keep it to 2 pages if possible, but if the position you are applying for is prestigious or highly competitive, they would probably appreciate more information. For example, the CVs of many scholars are pages and pages long! If you do not have a formal art degree but have taken collegiate courses, should you include the university and disciplines under Education? I was originally enrolled in a 4 year art program and due to a significant change in circumstances had to move and was forced to complete a 2 year general degree. My CV is really short, although I’m working on getting more exhibitions under my belt.
Hi Diana, yes, I would include these collegiate courses but keep them brief. I would list the general degree and ap world essay grading, highlight your original focus on the arts-related courses. What if you have no experience, have taken photography classes and on the, have only shown in essay rubrics, student shows? How can you put something together with practically nothing without making it look that way? Hi Lisa, you should list your photography courses under education and your student shows under exhibitions. Best University. If anyone owns your work (even if you’ve gifted them a work,) you can list them as a private collection (see step 5.) Those three items formatted nicely with your contact info should give you a decent 1 page CV. Don’t worry if it seems sparse to history grading rubrics you, there’s nothing wrong with being an emerging artist! Also remember most people will look at your artwork before they look at your CV #128521;
Thank you for the information – it’s very helpful! One other question – as far as publications is concerned: what if my art appeared in a [student] publication, but wasn’t reviewed? The book appears every spring and consists of abortion essay photos of ap world grading rubrics various students’ work. Should I put that on a CV or leave it out? Hi Lisa, definitely include it. Any time your artwork is published it’s worth including! A couple of questions: I have several exhibitions from the Navy, should they be listed by to write my essay ship or simply U.S. Navy with home city and year? I also received a nomination for 2005 Graphic Artist of the history grading, Year while in the Navy, which section would you recommend listing this?
Hi Michael, for simple way to a thesis your exhibitions, I think you should list U.S. Navy, the ship, as well as home city and year. Someone looking at your CV would probably appreciate as much information as possible. For your nomination (congratulations, by essay the way!) you can list that under a heading called “awards.” You could format it something like this: 2005, Nomination, Graphic Artist of the Year, US Navy. I hope that helps #128578; Very much so. Thank you! OK, one more question, for multiple awards received in website, one year, list year and ap world history essay, award individually or as a group under that one year? Hi Michael, there’s no exact right or wrong here, it’s up to to write my essay you in terms of what you think visually looks better. You could go like this:
Nominated, Award #1. Nominated, Award #2. Finalist, Award #3. 2005, Nominated, Award #1. 2005, Nominated, Award #2. 2005, Finalist, Award #3. 2004, Winner, Award #4. just saying thank you. Ap World History Rubrics. i have struggled to roe vs find a good reference for creating a cv for history rubrics an artist, this one is great. Thank you! I’m glad it helped you. I was wondering whether the university for writing, tips above applies to those wanting to pursue arts-management courses as well? . I don’t have formal post-secondary arts-related education but have taken part in small-scale and history grading rubrics, major group exhibitions.
Hi Yangzheur, I think it depends exactly what you’re tailoring your CV for. Do you mean that you are applying to an arts-management business type of best course? If so, look closely at their requirements. Are they asking for an artist’s CV? If so, the ap world rubrics, information about would be applicable to you. If they are asking for simple way to a thesis a resume, and if you feel your participation in grading, the exhibitions are relevant to the focus of the program, you could add those to your resume as professional experience. I hope that helps! Thank you. Its good reference to abortion roe vs make a CV for an artist. Reblogged this on ap world history grading, balladblood and commented: Very helpful for those of us doing their artist C.V’s for the first time.
Great Advice! My sister is struggling and I am trying to help in any way. I am not an simple a thesis artist so all the advice helps! Can I send you her CV so far? Hi Natalie, if you have any specific questions about the CV or its formatting, please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Cheers! Thanks for ap world history grading rubrics the information.
You have clearly explained how we can write professional resume perfectly. There is one option to create perfect CV is to write a thesis use resume templates. This helps in saving your lot of time and also helps to history essay grading rubrics make your resume best among all. Wow, This is university for writing wonderful. I am trying to take the information from ap world my regular resume and crate a CV for cd cover essay graduate school applications. Ap World Grading. Is there a best format for grad school applications that combines both work and art? Also, I am challenged by how I should add a competition (the only one I have to put on the CV) that was through Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18, which is a print and web journal. Three Paragraph. I won a Merit award in student photography and was published (full page) in the magazine. But in history grading, addition to that for the same issue, my winning Runner-Up image was posted in the on-line gallery. Here’s what I have written. Abortion. The formatting did not carry over with a copy and paste function.
Please imagine that the ap world history essay rubrics, journal title is underlined not to include the words, Volume Five, Number Four. Can you tell me if it is correctly entered? This is so awesome! Thank you! New Talent Merit Winner-Student Photography. Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Way To. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010.
64. Ap World Grading Rubrics. Print. Runner-Up-Student Photography. “Online Gallery: CQ 18.” Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010. Forgive if this post hows up twice. My laptop is essay being a pain right now. Hi, please forgive me for my delay in replying! I think you should choose what elements you need from your work resume and essay grading, which from to write my essay your art, and combine them as you see fit based on the requirements of your application. Resumes are CVs are formatted fairly similarly, so if you just keep that consistent it should be just fine to combine the information that they require into one document.
Regarding your competitions section, you could consider renaming it “Awards.” Even if you technically received runner-up, it still is appropriate. Ap World History Rubrics. I think your formatting works well. Hope that helps #128578; New Talent Student Photography Award,v The information you’ve shared is very helpful. I will change the cd cover essay, section to ap world history essay grading rubrics Awards,and I’ll change the simple write, information as you have suggested above. History Essay Grading. I really appreciate you! Thank you very much.
When adding shows to your CV, should you separate juried shows from exhibitions? Does it matter and how should you separate them? I know that separating solo shows from group shows is done, but I am wondering specifically about juried (and, now that I think about it, un-juried — but that would make it more of best university just a group exhibition, no?) shows. Thank you. If you want to note that certain shows were juried, I would just put a note at the end of those entries. History Essay Grading. For example: 2013: “Portraits” at the Downtown Art Gallery (juried) “Landscapes” at West Art Gallery. “Abstracts” and East Art Gallery (juried) I think if you were to separate juried shows into their own section, it could get too confusing for a reader. Hope that helps!
Hi! Thanks so much for this CV advice, v helpful! I have a question aswell. Would you include web-based magazines under “bibliography”? And in that case, how would you write it? If you would like to include web-based magazines or publications on your CV, go ahead. You can list them along with the three paragraph persuasive, other items in your bibliography, and ap world history grading rubrics, just put ” (online) ” or similar at the end of the listing.
I’m sure web-based articles and reviews haven’t always been appropriate for my essay CVs, but obviously things are changing. Any important articles and reviews, online or otherwise, should be included. Hope that helps! Thanks very much for history rubrics your help! Am struggling with my CV, and to write my essay, realized Ive been in some magazines that have both a paper-based article and the same article online, so just thought I could refer to the online article as it would be easier get a hold of. In that case, you could add “(also available online)”? Perhaps that would make it clear to essay rubrics the reader. Thanks so much for your help with this! If I had a collaborative piece in paragraph essay, a group show in a museum, how do I indicate that I was one of a number of people who produced the ap world history grading, piece, or do I need to?
You could list it like this: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (artwork in collaboration with Andy Warhol and Jackson Pollack) or if you don’t want to list the other artists (there’s too many, or you just want simplicity), you could simply put: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (collaborative artwork). Hope that helps! If you show and sell in artist markets do they go in the Exhibitiions section? Should they be in best, a separate section ie; Markets. Ap World. Many of the markets I have done over the past year were juried.
Hi Leslie, usually you would not include markets in the exhibition section, even if they are juried. You could include them in of education in india, their own section if you would like to include them on your CV, but I would say only do this if you are submitting your CV for commercial purposes, ie applying to a different market. Thank you for sharing this information and ap world rubrics, displaying it in such an paragraph essay easy to follow fashion. Hi mate, do you suggest a cover letter with your cv? Thank you for rubrics this, I had done mine like a job CV until I found your post. I do not have a lot of shows on my CV, but I have made the most of paragraph persuasive essay it with your advice.
Thank you. Hello and thank you for essay grading rubrics the information you’ve shared. However, I’m someone who has had a career in producing and promoting the art of others. I recently found my own ‘voice’ and am trying to establish myself. Simple Write A Thesis. My work is abstract photography and I’ve been approached for some rather large projects in essay rubrics, Saudi Arabia, here in Los Angeles and in NYC. Essay. I’ve had an article written on me by ap world essay rubrics a design magazine. I do have work in abortion roe vs wade essay, private collections in London, New York, Jacksonville, Dallas, New Orleans, Provincetown and Los Angeles, as well as shows in essay, a couple of simple way to a thesis smaller galleries here in Los Angeles, but I can’t seem to land gallery representation. Ap World History Grading Rubrics. I’ve created an EMK (electronic media kit) to website to write my essay use to begin cold submissions to galleries.
I just was curious what input or advice you might have for me going forward. I appreciate your time and attention. Robert Madden. I would suggest, if you haven’t already, researching the ap world history essay grading, mandates or programs of galleries before submitting. This could be online, or simply a phone call asking if galleries are accepting submissions, and what exactly they are looking for.
Hopefully you can then narrow down the list of galleries you are approaching. Of course, acquiring gallery representation is not easy for anyone. Way To A Thesis. Stay persistent and keep working on your own projects and exhibitions–good things will happen. Hi dear,Thanks for sharing this format,I tried my best to made the most of it with your advise. I have attended some workshops by some well known artists.
Should I include this under education or leave it off the CV. Including the workshops would be appropriate in the education section as you suggested. Thank you so much for this. Even the comments under specific questions asked by history essay others has been helpful. Paragraph Essay. I appreciate your efforts. I unfortunately have no formal art training (I can not afford to attend art school) and I am near completion of my first collection (it is a mixed media project that focuses on the use of green army men in each piece). I recently discovered a not for profit gallery in grading rubrics, my area that are taking submissions. I have a few pieces that I want to submit, and I have been racking my brain on importance in india, what to place in my resume since I have not sold any work, presented it anywhere, I have yet to ap world history rubrics place any work on a website. Could you please assist me? Thank you in best university for writing, advance.
I also would like to ask if it is strange for an artist to work on a political body of work (as my toy soldier piece is), and then jump to a humorous body of work, and back to ap world history essay grading something political in nature, and anywhere in cd cover essay, between? I can not think of ap world history rubrics any artist that have done that. I always make notes of ideas for bodies of works that I’d like to create (many tend to be of a conceptual nature), and I have realised that many of cd cover essay my ideas don’t fit into a mold that would categorize me as a person making a particular type of work. I ask this because, at some point, I would like to work on a humorous body of work after I feel ready to move on from this project. The best I can do for your is included in my newest post, which offers suggestions for if you need to write a CV and don’t have much professional experience: https://thepracticalartworld.com/2013/04/09/how-to-write-an-artists-cv-when-you-dont-have-much-or-any-professional-experience/ Alternatively, depending on history essay, what is required of best university for writing you for your submission, you could include a cover letter indicating that you do not have a CV as you are a new and emerging self-taught artist.
In terms of the art itself, honesty is always visible. If you make work that matters to you, whether it’s serious or humourous, that’s the essay grading rubrics, best anyone can do. Thank you so much! Recently I took part in a photo competition organised by a local independent art gallery. Abortion Wade Essay. I didn’t win first prize but I was one of the essay rubrics, runner-up(finalists). Can this be included in my CV? If so under which (specific) category? If am applying for best university for writing transfer of ap world history essay article ship in simple, any firm where should i mention experience details.In experience column or any other place as the reason for transfer.
What a fantastic resource. Thank you! My issue is that I’ve taken about essay grading rubrics 10 years off to simple way to raise my children, so all of my dates are really OLD!! I’d like not to ap world essay include any dates on exhibitions or education or anything – what do you think? I feel like I am still emerging, and yet the dates would say otherwise (ie: undergrad in 1985-1991, grad school in 1993/94, etc…) How would you include a publication you produce? I have been publishing and selling a calendar of my mandala art since 1997.
Do I include that? How is the best way? You could list them under the heading “Publications” The format beyond that is up to you, but for cd cover essay an example you could do something like: 1997, “Michael Lukacsko” published by Mandala Art. If there are any essays or authors, you could list them also. Hope that helps! Thank you so Much.
You helped me a lot. Thank you for this advice – it helps a great deal to make sense of the differences between a work resume and an artist CV. I do have one question – is it ok to grading rubrics mix media on abortion roe vs wade essay, a single CV? I came from a journalism/print media background and history essay grading rubrics, am now doing photography. To Write My Essay. Can I list my “Images of Men and Women in Advertising” Pop-Culture presentation and my piece on Lollapalooza on ap world essay, the same CV as my photography exhibit? I would say yes, as long as everything is still relevant to your practice (which it sounds like it is). Thank you so much for putting this together. It is paragraph just what I need to get my CV in working order for gallery applications. I have been doing solo exhibits for history essay rubrics a number of years, but have never had the courage to try to best break into the world of gallery showings.
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First, this information is so very helpful! Many thanks!! Secondly, I’m an emerging artist, so my CV is in the “sparse” stage. I’ve had two projects in which people commissioned me to create art work for covers. One was for a published book of poetry, the other was for a music CD. What title would I list these 2 projects under?
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I have been an artist for years and essay importance in india, I still don’t have a comprehensive cv. I would also advice including links for ap world history your online portfolio i you have blogs or a website. Cd Cover Essay. It would be useful and convenient for employers if they will just type the links and get an idea of what you can do as an artist. Nice advice! Keep it up! I will try to apply including to links for my future resume drafts. #128578; BTW, good job for this article.
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Aw, this was an ap world grading incredibly good post. Taking the time and actual. effort to make a superb article… but what can I say… I hesitate a whole lot and never seem to get. nearly anything done. Hi, this is the most useful site i have come across for advice on cd cover essay, writing an artists cv– So thank you for that! I have a question. I come from a background in Animation, i studied a postgrad in it, and grading, prior to that a degree in Graphic Design but in cd cover essay, the last few years i have chucked animation in to be an artist. I have several exhibitons, but am wondering if it is ok to put that i occasionally teach with a group of kids once a month animation at ap world essay grading rubrics the BFI (British Film Institute), or does this sound unproffesional.
Also i have an award from university for writing years ago from ap world history grading RSA for a short animation film i made…it is ok to include this in the CV. I also developed a childrens animation series and was creative director at a major tv company in the UK a while ago but am concerned that if i put all this in this CV it will be too long and not sticking to the field i am now involved with. I am just checking with you really, I was thinking of putting the awards only and if anyone wanted to know more about my experience as an animator treat it as a seperate subject or CV?? thanks in advance for your advice. I am applying to do an artists fair. Regards B. I think if you create a heading on your CV called “teaching” and put your BFI experience under, that would sound great.
It doesn’t matter that it’s in abortion wade essay, animation—teaching is a good thing to put on your CV if it’s in an arts-related field, which this is. Essay Grading Rubrics. I would agree with you that the roe vs, award should be included, as it is an award you won for a personal creative project. I would also agree that the TV company experience should not be included, as that would be more of a work resume item. I hope that helps. Cheers! that’s great- thanks for that.
One other quick question. I know that nowadays it is not compulsory to rubrics put your date of essay on the importance in india birth on a CV- at ap world history grading rubrics least that is the case in the UK- due to ageism! would you think that for an artists CV this is necessary though? My thoughts are that it might be needed for say selling something in cd cover essay, an auction, or on ap world history grading rubrics, an artists biography, but why should this be on a CV necesarily….? If it is a necesity could you let me know and i will put it, but I do not agree with it personally! I think it is often done, but not compulsory.
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I have (finally) joined a gallery that is asking for an artist resume – I have a bio, but this will be my first artist resume. Your outline makes it look like a very doable task. I have one question – the gallery has asked for my website. My site is a with a POD (print on demand) group – I have my own page and only my work is ap world essay represented. Would it be ok to best for writing use that site or would it make me look “unprofessional?” I’m not that familiar with POD websites, but it sounds like you are hesitant to grading rubrics share your site because you think it would be unprofessional compared to your representing gallery. If this is the case, why not make a new site that is website my essay only your portfolio of works?
Thanks for getting back to me, I’ll get to work on that page! Hi! This is ap world history grading rubrics my 1st comment here so I just wanted. to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading through your. posts. Essay. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that go over the same subjects? very helpful … but a lot of differences with other cv examples. Reblogged this on My Blog. Hi there, I wish for too subscrib for this website to ap world history grading rubrics obbtain hottest. updates, thus where can i doo it please assist.
Hi there, thanks for posting this and helping all of us artists. I have a question, how would you include artwork produced that was not for an article/magazine, but a poster for a play? Where does this fall under? Hi Kirsty, there’s no rule for this but I would suggest a heading like “Projects” where you can add all of your published works or other projects. What’s up friends, how is the abortion, whole thing, and what you desire to say regarding this post, in ap world history essay grading rubrics, my view its really awesome designed for. Very great post. I just stumbled upon simple way to a thesis, your blog and wished to. say that I’ve really loved surfing around your blog posts. After all I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I’m hoping you write. My partner and ap world rubrics, I stumbled over here different web address and on the importance of education, thought I might check things.
out. History Essay Grading Rubrics. I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward to going over your web page repeatedly. RealtimeCV interactive CV creation tool is awesome. Now you can create your modern infographic CV and save it PDF. Here is the link: http://www.realtimecv.com/cvdetails. Reblogged this on Greta Laundy Art and commented: Useful information.
Very similar to university for writing NAVA’s suggestions. Thanks, but i have a question. Essay Grading. what if i am currently working with the people of write my field(let say engineers) but as a creative team. shall I still not have to mention my engineering degree in my CV? i’ve had my art featured in several independently published zines and online magazines, how should i feature that in my CV? awesome! i am writing one for a friend and essay rubrics, was trying to find all of the exact resources you list. kuddos and many thanks!
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conclusion chapter Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade. Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is history essay rubrics, a draft of to write my essay a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.
Organisation of this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and grading Awards) Act.
1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the cd cover essay, Act. Commentary on the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.
1977-82 Matters for Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.
1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to ap world history rubrics cite this piece.
If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and three paragraph persuasive essay an extract or series of ap world essay rubrics extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. Simple Way To! For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the essay, source is cd cover essay, acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is history essay grading, always the cd cover essay, page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is ap world, available online. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for cd cover essay, the school curriculum was previously ascribed to HMI. In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. This has been corrected in the chapter below and in the Timeline; and the full text of the document is now available online.
My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of education. Neo-liberalism became the ap world essay, dominant force in British politics with the write, election in 1979 of the Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Her government's policies 'accelerated the closing down of unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and essay economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Cd Cover Essay! Soaring inflation and a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for her, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands and she was able to play the part of heroic war leader in the Falklands War between March and June 1982. History! The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.
With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from cd cover essay, 44 to 144), she felt emboldened to ap world take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at the general election in 1987. Her majority of 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the introduction of a form of poll tax. It proved to be her undoing and she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only industry and commerce but also public services.
Conservative legislation sought to drive neo-liberal principles into the heart of public policy. Three Paragraph Persuasive! An emphasis on ap world essay cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and the promotion of to write new forms of public management. The outcome of these processes was a form of governance in which market principles were advanced at the same time as central authority was strengthened. (Jones 2003:107) Thus the twin aims of Margaret Thatcher's education policies in the 1980s were to convert the nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of essay grading rubrics this policy can be traced back to the establishment in 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to persuade the Conservative Party to abandon the post-war welfare consensus and embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in Evolution by choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to the Black Paper of 1977. (For more on the Black Papers see the previous chapter). He set out to 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on 'absolute freedom of to write my essay choice by essay, application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of 'ability and aptitude'. If it was undersubscribed it would face the possibility of three essay closure.
The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. There would be an rubrics, 'effective and simple way to write independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by history essay rubrics, commitment to the market and to privatisation' (Benn and Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to be radical and modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to ditch the elitist policies of the of education, past. The most obvious of history grading these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for three, secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. The Tories had underestimated the history essay grading, popularity of comprehensive schools, and attempts to reintroduce or extend selection in Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Solihull all failed as a result of essay importance of education strong local opposition.
But the Tories weren't going to ap world history essay grading rubrics give up. 'Such defeats served to simple encourage Conservative Ministers to opt for rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at establishing a wider variety of secondary schools and providing for history, greater parental choice' (Chitty and Dunford 1999:25). They began work on a series of radical changes characterised by the absence of essay on the importance of education any popular demand for them from any section of the education community nationally or locally, nor even from the populist media. One by one all had to history rubrics be imposed by website my essay, means of a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from all other political parties and history essay grading from much of the educational establishment. Wade Essay! (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the ground. When she took office in May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. He was 'moderate and essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in Chitty and history rubrics Dunford 1999:1).
This suited Thatcher because at first reform of my essay education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the rate of inflation (causing very high levels of unemployment in the process) and with curbing the ap world history essay grading rubrics, power and best university influence of the trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in ap world history essay grading rubrics, September 1981 by the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and best for writing education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the government's agenda. Ironically, as secretary of state for education Joseph found himself commanding an apparatus that was now increasingly involved in ap world grading, specifying the everyday practice of schools. To Write! . Joseph, like the essay grading, ministers who succeeded him, organised in cd cover essay, the name of 'effective education' a vast new complex of regulations and history essay grading rubrics regulators that would measure and direct the processes and cd cover essay outcomes of schooling. (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the education department, Thatcher set about preparing to take control. This meant confronting the 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and essay national and local inspectors and advisors. There would be action on on the importance of education three fronts: the ap world history grading, curriculum - traditionally seen as the 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to enter; the teachers - controlling their training and best development and restricting their role in curriculum development; and ap world history essay grading the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the 'Great Debate' on the nature and purposes of education. Under the university, Thatcher administration, the debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the publication in 1979 of LEA Arrangements for the School Curriculum which required local authorities to publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in which the ap world rubrics, secretaries of state (for Education and abortion roe vs Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the approach to ap world history grading rubrics the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in essay, the years ahead'.
Every local education authority was expected to frame policies for the school curriculum consistent with the ap world rubrics, government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in abortion wade essay, the light of the advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in its area, and its arrangements for essay rubrics, making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the extent to which current provision in the schools is consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of schools, teachers and others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to provide: (a) a report on the progress which has been made in drawing up a policy for the curriculum in its primary and secondary schools . (b) a description of the roles played in the processes of drawing up the policy by heads and other teachers, governors, parents and other interested parties in the local community; (c) a brief statement of the three paragraph, ways in which the policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to seek to ensure that the curriculum is planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to ensure that the curriculum is appropriately related to what happens outside school, and includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in essay rubrics, mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of website to write how far the resources available to the authority . are enabling it to ap world history grading give effect to its policy for the curriculum. (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and simple write a thesis LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the DES issued A framework for ap world history essay grading rubrics, the school curriculum in 1980; and HMI produced a number of essay on the of education publications, including: A View of the ap world essay, Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from 5 to 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). On The! The HMI documents were progressive in outlook. The Curriculum from 5 to 16 , for example, argued that the school curriculum should be thought of in terms of 'areas of learning and experience' and that it included not only the formal programme of ap world essay grading lessons, but also the 'informal' programme of so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the quality of relationships, the abortion, concern for equality of history essay opportunity, the values exemplified in the way the school sets about its task and the way in which it is organised and managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to government ministers.
In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . This consultation document set out plans for the introduction of simple write a national curriculum and associated assessment procedures. Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in haste: the history rubrics, cover was printed but the contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the previous year). Central government also sought greater control over teachers. In 1984 the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to reduce the influence of way to teachers in curriculum development, the Schools Council, in which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in 1984. Its work was shared between the School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by the secretary of state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to 'concern itself with policy'. And in 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and performance-related pay. The result was a year of history grading rubrics industrial action by teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the local authorities - many of them run by essay on the of education in india, Labour - were an irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on in the schools.
Her government therefore set about weakening the role of the essay grading, LEAs by dismantling the triangular framework of essay on the importance of education in india responsibility - central government, local authorities and the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in the running of schools. The LEAs were already in a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the number of LEAs was reduced from 146 to ap world history essay grading rubrics 104. Many of the reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to some widely publicised resignations of Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over three the service. Furthermore, after the ap world essay, 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for simple way to write, local politics to ap world rubrics consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). Now, in the 1980s, public spending was being cut and the differences between the spending of different LEAs widened. As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to ebb back to roe vs wade essay central government. Thatcher enlisted the essay grading rubrics, right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. Papers like The Sun and website the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the ap world history essay, absurdities perpetrated - often in wade essay, the name of equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Ealing, for example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. It wasn't true, of course (I know - I was there!), but the endless repetition of essay grading rubrics such stories damaged the image of local authorities in the eyes of the public - which is precisely what it was intended to do.
The government took another swipe at the local authorities in 1982, when it launched the Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at simple a thesis 14-18 year olds. LEAs were not allowed to participate. History Rubrics! Instead, it was administered by the Department of cd cover essay Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). It was not exactly a success. 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in this area and so was expenditure: £89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only essay a year or two in existence' (Benn and Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in 1986 to promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the government announced that schools would in future be allowed to best offer vocational courses like those from the Business and ap world essay grading Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of vocational qualifications' (Benn and cd cover essay Chitty 1996:17) in grading, an attempt to university create a single new system of vocational qualifications: GNVQ for history essay grading, educational qualifications and website to write my essay NVQ for qualifications gained through work. For a brief moment it looked as if at history essay rubrics last a British government was going to catapult the country into a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and an integration of vocational and academic education. (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to three persuasive be.
The Major administration (see the next chapter) chose not to ap world history rubrics pursue the integration of way to a thesis academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at history essay 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the process of giving more power to university for writing parents. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to choose schools (6) and the right to ap world appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the creation of cd cover essay new schools and the closing of history essay grading existing ones (12), and the number of school places (15); the Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to pay for 30,000 children to go to private schools (17); the obligation on local authorities to provide free milk and meals was removed, except in the case of children from best for writing, families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).
Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the publication of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to identify the needs of children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for ascertaining those needs (5-6); and produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at School . 1983 Education (Fees and ap world essay rubrics Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the secretary of state to require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to students 'not having the requisite connection with the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man' and to exclude such students from best, being eligible for certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.
This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to be given to LEAs for government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in taking control of education policy away from the LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in 1987 when Specific Grants for history essay rubrics, INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the limit set in section 2(1) of the three, Education (Grants and Awards) Act 1984 on expenditure approved for education support grant purposes, and excluded remuneration for lunchtime supervision from the essay grading rubrics, Remuneration of Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. Website To Write! He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in the job. The first (and much the shorter - 5 pages) was the 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and the pooling of expenditure by local authorities. 1986 Education (No.
2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only much longer than the first, it was also profoundly more important. History Essay Rubrics! It implemented the proposals set out in the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the simple write, importance of the LEAs and ap world essay grading put the focus on the Department and the schools. Best University For Writing! Governors were to be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and staffing. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for specific responsibilities including the essay grading rubrics, 'determination and organisation of the secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the power to for writing exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the Act introduced the concept of ap world history grading educational law, so that lawyers became involved in education for the first time. It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to abortion wade have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of governing bodies was changed - the number of parent governors was to be equal to the number of LEA governors and there were to be staff governors and others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.
If taught (it didn't have to be), sex education had to encourage pupils 'to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the school's curriculum (20); discipline was the responsibility of the head, though the principles underlying it were to be supplied by governors (22); there were new rules on essay grading rubrics pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and importance appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to ap world history essay rubrics produce an annual report (30) and hold an annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to be no political indoctrination in schools - this was an attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in a number of schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by the state (47); provision was made for the appraisal of teachers (49); governors were required to supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to provide training for governors (57); and three essay the secretary of state was no longer required to produce annual report (60). Download the Education (No. 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).
The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from 'promoting teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by ap world history essay grading, New Labour in university for writing, November 2003). Download the Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the most important education act since 1944. It is history grading, sometimes referred to as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).
The Act was presented as giving power to the schools. In fact, it took power away from the LEAs and the schools and gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and turned it into way to write a thesis a market - something the Tories had been working towards for history, a decade. Chitty and Dunford (1999:25) argue that the 'meretricious agenda' of the 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to the remarkable resilience of the website to write, comprehensive ideal'. Ap World History Essay Rubrics! Having failed to get selection reinstated in 1979, the Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and the introduction of local markets . as attempts to introduce selection by the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and university for writing collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and assessment councils; admission of pupils to county and voluntary schools; local management of schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and the abolition of ILEA.
Download the ap world essay grading, Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in all maintained schools, consisting of religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the knowledge, skills and best for writing understanding which children would be expected to have by history essay, the end of each key stage; the 'programmes of website to write study' to history essay be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for assessing pupils at the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and essay importance physical education); plus a modern foreign language at key stages 3 and ap world rubrics 4 (3(1-2)). Schools in best for writing, Welsh-speaking areas of Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out new rules on religious education: every day was to ap world essay begin with an 'act of collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Every LEA was required to set up a standing advisory council on religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of representatives of religious groups, the Church of England, teachers and the local authority (11(4)).
Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education should 'reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to be established: the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and essay of education in india Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to have its own Curriculum Council for Wales). The members of the councils would be appointed by the secretary of state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the curriculum and advise the secretary of state, carry out history essay grading rubrics programmes of research and development, publish and disseminate information relating to the curriculum and perform 'such ancillary activities as the Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of examinations and assessment; it was also to make arrangements with appropriate bodies for the moderation of assessments made in pursuance of assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of Pupils to County and Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the admission of pupils to maintained schools, in particular the conditions which were to be met if the authority responsible for abortion roe vs essay, admissions to a school wished to reduce the 'standard number' of places in a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and Staff.
Before 1988, schools had only had control over 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to books and materials. The staff were employed and ap world history essay grading rubrics the buildings maintained by the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of schools' (LMS), the cd cover essay, schools were to history essay be given far greater control, managing almost the whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the essay importance of education, school in respect of that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for that year to be spent for ap world history essay grading rubrics, the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on the basis of an 'allocation formula' based on the number and ages of the pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for for writing, this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of history essay grading staff would be transferred from the to write, local authority to schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for the establishment of grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and funded directly by central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the articles of ap world essay grading rubrics government (58); the conduct of paragraph parents' ballots to ap world grading decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and staff to university the governing bodies (74-5) and the grants (maintenance, special purpose and essay rubrics capital) payable to three paragraph the schools (79). History Essay! It made clear that funds directed to grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.
The Act provided for the establishment of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and City Colleges for the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and Further Education. Part II of the Act made changes to university the provision and funding of higher and further education and provided for the establishment of history essay two new funding bodies: the Universities Funding Council (UFC) and the Polytechnics and paragraph essay Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of history essay grading rubrics state. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for essay importance of education, the funding of schools. Part III Education in Inner London. Part III of the Act provided for the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and history grading rubrics liabilities to the inner London boroughs.
Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the Act covered a number of other matters: the best university for writing, establishment and functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the Act was written by a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in its design or construction. Ap World Grading! It was almost entirely content-based. Dennis Lawton, of the to write, University of London Institute of Education, described it as the reincarnation of the 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and ap world essay grading rubrics therefore unmanageable, especially at the primary level, and its introduction resulted in a significant drop in reading standards. It divided the curriculum up into essay importance discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and ap world essay grading 'project' work difficult if not impossible. Cd Cover Essay! But perhaps the most damaging outcome of it was that it prevented teachers and schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to curriculum 'deliverers'.
It was also constantly revised. Right-wing think-tanks and ap world history essay pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and simple way to write a thesis Anglicisation of the national testing system, so as to emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). History Essay! The New Right gained control of the curriculum and assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from three, teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in ap world essay grading rubrics, 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to redesign the national curriculum, reducing the simple, amount of ap world history essay rubrics detail and removing 'the stronger signs of the traditionalist and ethnocentric enthusiasms of the on the of education in india, New Right'. The 1995 revision of the national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the curriculum, and its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. They were based on the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT) led by Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the Black Report).
The report was sound on the purposes of assessment. It began by listing four criteria for a national assessment scheme: the ap world history essay, assessment results should give direct information about to write my essay pupils' achievement in relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the results should provide a basis for decisions about pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the scales or grades should be capable of comparison across classes and schools, if teachers, pupils and ap world history essay grading parents are to share a common language and common standards: so the assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in which criteria and scales are set up and used should relate to three paragraph persuasive essay expected routes of educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at different ages: the assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to be addressed: the undesirable effects of testing on children (stress etc); the possible damage to relationships between parents and schools; the fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in history grading rubrics, league tables, 'leading to ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). Write A Thesis! Unfortunately, the Report went on to propose a system of testing at ages 7, 11, 14 and 16 (at the end of the Key Stages) in history grading, which each pupil was to be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of 'Attainment Targets' in the ten National Curriculum subjects. This was hugely complicated and never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the proposals and favoured simpler external tests of essay on the importance of education in india children at 7, 11 and 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in the educational validity of the assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the education market place she was so determined to create. So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to where to send their children. Three inevitable - and undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to take on pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to grading rubrics concentrate their efforts on children who were on the borderline between one level and the next rather than on those who needed attention most; and the curriculum became skewed by university for writing, the need to ap world essay grading rubrics practise for the tests.
On religious education and collective worship, it is interesting to abortion essay compare the Act's stipulations that the essay rubrics, majority of a school's 'acts of collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and that Christianity should be the predominant religion in religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is never mentioned - because it was taken for granted. For more on religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the role of the head teacher and governors. The head was no longer an educationalist but an institutional manager. S/he now had to learn about three recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and history essay grading safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in relation to the control of a school's budget and to simple way to the appointment and dismissal of staff. No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.
Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on ap world essay rubrics the role. Because school budgets were to be based largely on pupil numbers, schools had to attract as many pupils as possible in order to survive. This led to some bizarre cases of schools offering gifts to parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to around 85 per cent of the total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an important element in the creation of an website to write my essay, 'education market'; it took financial control away from the local authorities; and it enabled the government to 'pass the buck' to the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the second year of ap world essay grading rubrics LMS onwards. Indeed, school budgets were cut in six of the eight years following 1988.
The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on essay the LEAs. It was also iniquitous because, to bribe schools into opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at the expense of the history essay grading rubrics, remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of their pupils on the basis of ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to become grant-maintained in the first year or two, but when the extra cash dried up, so did the applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the abortion roe vs wade, schools that did opt out were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on education tended to be lower. A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to go grant-maintained were concentrated in ap world history essay grading, just 12 of the 117 education authorities in England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the state and independent sectors. He told the abortion roe vs wade essay, TES : What we have at present is seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to rise to ten per cent; and on the other side, a huge continent: 93 per cent in the state-maintained sector. . What I think is striking in the British education system is history essay grading, that there is nothing in between . Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of half-way house. I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.
I think many parents would as well. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to destroy the power of the LEAs (and to three reintroduce selection) by involving private enterprise in education. A hundred of the colleges were to be set up across the country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per ap world history essay grading pupil far higher than in the neighbouring local authority schools. In the essay importance of education, event, only a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to grading pick up the bill. The last CTC to be authorised, in best for writing, April 1991, was Kingswood in Bristol. The chair of rubrics Cable and Wireless and former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the cd cover essay, required £2m; the history, government handed over the remaining £8m. Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that £8m for capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the £4.5m he had for capital spending on paragraph essay the county's other 150,000 children. With the extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and there would still have been enough left over to give all primary schools an extra nursery class for a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by ap world rubrics, Labour politicians who were not afraid to comment on central government policies. Tory MPs called for its abolition in 1980 but were overruled by best university, education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and history essay she would have liked to get rid of ILEA at three persuasive essay the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.
But ILEA's days were numbered. An amendment calling for its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and grading rubrics Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into the 1988 Act. It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and its responsibilities delegated to the London boroughs. The destruction of ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and state vandalism: it had had a proud record of supporting schools in deprived areas and promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and committed to the wellbeing of abortion wade London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Ap World History Essay Rubrics! Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in 1977, had sought to combat racism, sexism and class prejudice in university, schools and society.
And in ap world history essay grading, 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to identify problems, the scale of which is, in some cases, unique in this country.' (A form of overall local government for London was reintroduced by New Labour in May 2000, when the first elections to cd cover essay the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Ken Livingstone became the first elected Mayor of London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for HE students and so began the diminution of student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Discussion.
As part of the 'Great Debate' called for in 1976 by Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. Grading Rubrics! 1164) that surveys of the quality of primary schools should be conducted at least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the whole school age range. They were: 1978 Primary education in way to a thesis, England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the Thatcher government and published its interim report, West Indian Children in ap world, our Schools , in persuasive, 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in our education system. Urgent action is needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).
It noted that in both primary and secondary schools the curriculum, books and teaching materials were often inappropriate to meet the needs and backgrounds of history essay rubrics West Indian pupils and that this was 'a cause of cd cover essay their lack of motivation and commitment to the work and their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for the underachievement of ap world grading West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on the part of teachers and the education system as a whole, and on the part of West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). Cd Cover Essay! They therefore recommended a range of history rubrics specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to bring about fundamental changes in attitude and practice in abortion roe vs wade, the longer term. Taken together, these constitute a programme for action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to fulfil their true potential in our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on the teaching of maths, in essay grading, the light of cd cover essay concerns expressed by the Education, Arts and history essay rubrics Home Office Sub-Committee of the Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in university, July 1977. These concerns related to the apparent lack of basic computation skills in many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on adults, the lack of qualified maths teachers, and the confusing multiplicity of maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Its terms of reference were: To consider the teaching of mathematics in primary and secondary schools in England and Wales, with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and adult life generally, and to make recommendations. The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in November 1981 and it was published in grading, January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.
The Committee of Enquiry into the Education of university for writing Children from Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and recommendations were: there is no single cause of underachievement and therefore no single solution; education has a major role in changing the attitudes of the history rubrics, white majority population; there is a need for greater sensitivity in the education of 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to raise teachers' awareness; in initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of both teachers and pupils; the first priority should be the learning of English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of instruction; and schools should not take on essay of education in india responsibility for the teaching and maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to ap world grading rubrics reconcile the concerns and to write my essay aspirations of both the majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the fragmentation of our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the history grading rubrics, stability and cohesion of society as a whole. Paragraph Essay! (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is ap world history essay grading rubrics, necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is not how to educate children of ethnic minorities, but how to educate all children. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by abortion roe vs essay, a Committee of ap world Inquiry chaired by Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for 16-18 year olds. It argued that the current A Level system was too narrow and three paragraph persuasive essay that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the recommendations.
1989 Cox Report. Chaired by Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of English Literature at history essay Manchester University, the roe vs essay, National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to make recommendations on attainment targets and programmes of study for the English component of the new National Curriculum. The result was the Cox Report English for ages 5 to 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to lead an enquiry into discipline in history, schools in England and Wales. The Elton Committee's report Discipline in Schools was published in the spring of 1989. Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and the School Examinations and Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on early years education. Produced by a committee chaired by Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the education of 3 and importance 4 year olds.
It was published in history essay grading, November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over three paragraph essay as education secretary. Tory attitudes to education - and to education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the bill which was shortly to become the history essay, 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the Tory Party Conference in October 1986: It is crucial for to write my essay, parents to understand where power in the education system lies. Ap World Rubrics! Our Education Bill radically changes the composition of school governing bodies. It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. We will end the dominance of the local authority and its political appointees. There will be more parent governors elected by all the parents. Control over sex education will be removed from the teachers and local authorities and given to write a thesis the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.
But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and the last straw for many was her determination to introduce a form of poll tax. Ap World History Essay! This led, in March 1990, to university for writing the worst riots London had seen for ap world essay grading, a century. She lost the confidence of her colleagues and in November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and abortion roe vs prime minister by John Major. Benn C and Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is ap world history, comprehensive education alive and in india well or struggling to survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and history Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.
DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in Britain: 1944 to the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in our Schools Interim report of the Committee of Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of three State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.
Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by choice' in CB Cox and R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Row. Swann (1985) Education for All Report of the Committee of Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.