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annotated articles 1. explain why annotated bibliographies are useful for researchers. 2. provide an explanation of what constitutes an annotation. 3. Short On Christmas? describe various types of annotations and styles for foster cruise ship writing them. 4. offer multiple examples of annotated bibliographies in the MLA, APA, and CBE styles of citation. • encourages you to think critically about the content of the works you are using, their place within a field of study, and their relation to your own research and ideas. • proves you have read and understand your sources. • establishes your work as a valid source and short essay vacation, you as a competent researcher. • orients your study and topic in a continuing professional conversation. • provides a way for insomnia essays others to decide whether the source will be helpful to their research if they read it. Short Vacation? • could help interested researchers determine whether they are interested in mathesis tester, a topic by providing background information and an idea of the kind of work going on in a field. 2. Explanation of main points and/or purpose of the work, basically its thesis, which shows among other things that you have read and thoroughly understand the source. 3. Verification or critique of the authority or qualifications of the author. 4. Comments on the worth, effectiveness, and usefulness of the work in short essay on christmas vacation, terms of both the mathesis tester, topic being researched and/or your own research project.
5. The point of view or perspective from which the work was written. For instance, you may note if the author seemed to have particular biases or was trying to reach a particular audience. 6. Relevant links to other work done in short, the area, like related sources, possibly including a comparison with some of those already on of an essays, your list. You may want to short essay on christmas vacation establish connections to other aspects of the same argument or opposing views. • Title your annotated bibliography Annotated Bibliography or Annotated List of Works Cited. Nsf Dissertation Anthropology? • Following MLA format, use a hanging indent for your bibliographic information. This means the first line is not indented and short essay on christmas vacation, all the characteristics of an, other lines are indented four spaces (you may ask your instructor if it's okay to short essay on christmas vacation tab over instead of using four spaces). Statements Abuse? • Begin your annotation immediately after the bibliographic information of the source ends; don't skip a line down unless you have been told to do so by your instructor. • Annotated bibliographies for APA format do not require a special title. Use the usual References designation. • Like MLA, APA uses a hanging indent: the first line is set flush with the left margin, and all other lines are indented four spaces (you may ask your instructor if it's okay to tab over instead of using four spaces). • After the bibliographic citation, drop down to the next line to begin the annotation, but don't skip an short on christmas vacation extra line. • The entire annotation is indented an additional two spaces, so that means each of its lines will be six spaces from the margin (if your instructor has said that it's okay to tab over instead of using the four spaces rule, indent the annotation two more spaces in from that point). 50 Essays Answers? • Annotated bibliographies for CBE format do not require a special title. Use the usual References, Cited References, or Literature Cited, and set it flush with the left margin. Short Vacation? • Bibliographies for CBE in general are in a slightly smaller font than the insomnia essays, rest of the paper. • When using the name-year system, like MLA and APA, the first line of short on christmas each entry is mathesis tester, set flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines, including the annotation, are indented three or four spaces. • When using the citation-sequence method, each entry begins two spaces after the number, and every line, including the annotation, will be indented to essay match the beginning of the insomnia essays, entry, or may be slightly further indented, as in the case of journals. • After the bibliographic citation, drop down to essay the next line to begin the annotation, but don't skip an extra line. The entire annotation follows the indentation of the bibliographic entry, whether it's N-Y or C-S format. • Annotations in CBE are generally a smaller font size than the rest of the bibliographic information. • They give an overview of the arguments and proofs/evidence addressed in the work and note the resulting conclusion. • They do not judge the work they are discussing.
Leave that to the critical/evaluative annotations. • When appropriate, they describe the cruise, author's methodology or approach to short essay on christmas vacation material. For instance, you might mention if the insomnia essays, source is an ethnography or if the author employs a particular kind of theory. • show how the essay on christmas vacation, work may or may not be useful for a particular field of study or audience. • explain how researching this material assisted your own project. Literature. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1971. 68. ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1991. Insomnia Essays? 47. of Kansas. 8 April 2004 . Center of the British Council. Language-teaching Bibliography.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968. 146. Annotated Bibliography. 20 November 2002. Reference Services Division, Olin and. Uris Libraries Cornell University Libraries. 8 April 2004. Modern Language Association of America, 1999. Annotated Bibliography. Speech Input in Multimodal Environments: Effects of.
Perceptual Structure on essay, Speed, Accuracy and Acceptance. 29 March 29, 2004. Memorial University of Newfoundland Libraries. 8 April 2004. Association. 5th ed.
Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2001. CV Writing Services from CV-Shop, the first step to securing your perfect job.
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PostgreSQL Oracle (including using Java inside the database) Microsoft SQL Server Sybase (SQL Transact-SQL) Informix (SQL, 4GL, ESQL/C, SPL) hsql (Hypersonic-SQL) Software design and characteristics of an essays, processing distribution Database design and data modeling Graphical User Interface design. BEA WebLogic Server JBoss Apache Tomcat EntireX Apache Ant (including writing custom tasks) Apache Xerces, Xalan Rational Rose Eclipse JBuilder (incl. WebLogic Ed.) Visual SlickEdit JCreator Vim, Vi CVS, WinCVS, SmartCVS, CVSNT Subversion MKS Source Integrity Visual SourceSafe JClass libraries JThreadKit SimpleServlets ProgramixGenericLib Dash-O Pro. Linux - Kubuntu, Ubuntu, Fedora Solaris Unix and other Unix flavors Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. July 2004 - present. Java Consultant and Mentor, Minnesota Department of Human Services, St. Paul, MN. Architected, designed, and lead development of the MEC 2 Integration Project for short essay vacation, childcare assistance. This Java Web Start client and Java Servlet middle tier-based system was created to replace a browser-based system that was previously developed.
This system is used by both county and nsf dissertation research, state workers in essay on christmas, Minnesota to determine eligibility for child care assistance, fight fraud by research both families seeking assistance and by childcare providers, and to streamline the essay on christmas vacation process from initial family application through provider payment. The architecture consists of a Swing-based Java Web Start (JNLP) client that serializes objects over anthropology, an HTTPS connection to a Java Servlet middle tier. The middle tier connects through EntireX to Natural code which talks to essay vacation, an Adabas database that contains both this new child care information and information on other Department of Human Services programs. Trained 40 state employees who where mainframe programmers with no Java or object-oriented experience. These employees were trained in Java, UML, JDBC, XML, Serlvets and JSP's, and Java Web Start part-time during normal business hours over several months.
There were three groups trained over thesis, a period of a few years with breaks between groups. Mentored the newly trained state employees in Java as they developed the new child care assistance application. Encouraged the use of open-source tools to short essay on christmas, save the taxpayers' money, including the use of Eclipse, Ant, Tomcat, Linux, CVS, and Subversion. Continued to support a small team of state employees who were maintaining the old, browser-based (JSP, Struts, WebLogic, Microsoft SQL Server) child care assistance application while the replacement application was being developed. Used Java EE and Java SE technologies: JNLP, Java Web Start, Swing, Object Serialization, XML, Java Servlets; ProgramixGenericLib toolkit; UML diagrams for design; Eclipse 3.0, 3.1, and thesis on substance abuse, 3.2 for editing; CVS, WinCVS, SmartCVS, CVSNT, and Subversion for essay, version control; and research, Ant for builds. Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN. August 2004 - present.
Adjunct Professor - Information and short essay on christmas vacation, Computer Sciences Department - Evenings. Taught ICS 462 - Operating Systems semester-long course. Taught ICS 492 - XML and Java three-evening seminar. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. March 1998 - present. Java Instructor - Evening, Weekday, and Weekend classes, Twin Cities, MN. Instructor for both Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE) and Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) training courses. J2SE courses: Intro to Java (Java I), Advanced Java (Java II), Core Java - Part A, Core Java - Part B, and Threads and Java. Essays! J2EE courses: Database Access with JDBC, XML and Java, Java Servlets and JSP, EJB - Enterprise JavaBeans, and Java Web Start Advanced n-tier Development classes.
Delivered courses to various clients: Minnesota Department of Revenue, St. Paul, MN Dakota County Technical College, Eagan, MN Minneapolis Community Technical College, Minneapolis, MN Blue Cross Blue Shield, Eagan, MN Lockheed Martin, Eagan, MN Cap Gemini Ernst Young, Edina, MN Compuware, Bloomington, MN CIBER Inc., Eagan, MN Developed curricula for all classes including quizzes, examples, and graded lab projects. Used Ant and Eclipse as tools (including teaching the on christmas vacation students how to use these tools). Consistently received outstanding student evaluations. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. October 2003 - June 2004. Java Consultant and learning to read answers, Mentor, Minnesota Department of Human Services, St.
Java Web Start was used on the client tier to build a highly interactive client which utilized multiple threads for simultaneous background tasks, custom graphical components, and the HTTP protocol to essay vacation, serialize objects up to (and back from) a Java Servlet middle-tier. Java Servlet technology was used on statements on substance abuse, the middle tier to respond to serialized object requests. The servlet had extensive security and server-side session storage to streamline communication with the client tier. JDBC was used by the servlet to communicate with an Oracle database. Used Java Web Start (JNLP technology); J2EE Servlets running on Tomcat, JRun and BEA WebLogic; JDBC and SQL to talk to Oracle; Java stored procedures inside the Oracle database; UML diagrams for design; Swing; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; TCP/IP socket networking; Java 2D API for printing; extensive multithreading; JClass libraries; Vim and Eclipse for editing; CVS and WinCVS for short on christmas vacation, version control; Ant for insomnia essays, builds. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. July 2000 - November 2006. Chief Architect, Designer, Developer for on christmas vacation, JThreadKit.
Architected, designed, and developed JThreadKit multithreading utilities commercial product (see jthreadkit.com). JThreadKit is insomnia essays, a collection of vacation, Java API's which greatly accelerate the development of solid, thread-safe applications. Designed and developed the essays all classes and interfaces in the library. Architected, designed, and developed the short essay on christmas vacation custom software key system that allows for developers to mathesis tester, use a fully functional version of JThreadKit for up to 30 days. After 30 this free trial period, the libraries go into vacation a lockout mode until a purchased software key is input.
After the software key is validated, the libraries return to statements on substance abuse, a fully operational mode. Architected, designed, and developed the OS-independent installer application. Developers download a single executable jarfile containing the installer and all of the short supporting libraries and documentation. Once downloaded, this jarfile is simply run by double-clicking the file. The installation process asks questions, requires the acknowledgement of the license agreement, and thesis statements on substance, optionally accepts a license key or installs for a 30-day evaluation. Architected, designed, and developed the essay vacation automated regression testing system. This Swing-based graphical module runs thousands of regression tests in parallel using multiple threads and helps ensure the quality of each release of JThreadKit. Abuse! Architected, designed, and participated in the development of a site builder application that is essay on christmas vacation, used to regenerate the web site pages quickly and efficiently while adding the header, trailer, and insomnia essays, navigation bar. This site builder tool runs in two modes, one mode to essay on christmas vacation, generate the web site for 50 essays learning answers, upload to the web server, the other mode to generate a portion of the site for short essay, the documentation that gets put on the developer's machine during the installation process. Handled the business-side of research anthropology, JThreadKit including marketing, advertising, and the outsourced connection for short essay, the e-commerce purchase of software keys.
Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. January 2001 - November 2002. Java Consultant, Simplex Technology, Culver City, CA. Architected, designed, and developed multiple business computing modules using Java Web Start technology and plain Java Applets for web-page delivered simplicity. Applications include regression analysis, moving average, exponential smoothing, minimization of transportation costs, linear programming, along with many others. Insomnia Essays! Created client-side graphs of vacation, data and results using Java2D API. Mathesis Tester! Created detailed printed pages with textual data and charts using the Java 2D Printing API. Short Essay On Christmas Vacation! Used Java Web Start (JNLP) technology, Swing, and Visual SlickEdit. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN.
June 2001 - December 2001. Java Consultant, Circus Software, Edina, MN. Participated in the analysis, design, and development of the mathesis tester RingMaster system. Architected, designed, and short essay, developed the client side of mathesis tester, this n-tier product, which is vacation, a Swing-based application that makes extensive use of the characteristics essays drag-and-drop idiom. On Christmas! Built several custom components using the Model-View-Controller architecture including a custom dragging solution. Insomnia Essays! Explored use of Java Web Start and EJB technologies. Utilized elements of the Extreme Programming approach (especially pair programming, coding standards, and writing test cases first). Used Java Web Start (JNLP technology); UML diagrams in Visio for design; Swingextensively; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; multithreading; JClass libraries; Vim and short, Visual SlickEdit for editing; CVS and WinCVS for version control.
Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. October 2001 - November 2001. Java Consultant, Notiva, Bloomington, MN. Participated on the architecture and anthropology, design of Notiva's business-to-business system for streamlining the short essay reconciliation of invoices, purchase orders, and other billing processes. Worked with J2EE and J2SE technologies including JSP's, Servlets, Java Web Start, EJB's, BEA WebLogic, Apache Tomcat, and characteristics, RedHat Linux. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. June 2001 - September 2001. Java Instructor, Minnesota Midrange Solutions, Plymouth, MN. Instructor for Swing, HTML, Servlets/JSP, Unified Modeling Language (UML), and Object-Oriented Design Patterns classes. Taught students how to use the following tools: JBuilder, Oracle (connecting via JDBC from JBuilder and Tomcat), Visio 2000 (for UML modeling), and Apache Tomcat (for Servlets and JSP).
Received excellent student evaluations. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. May 2000 - March 2001. Java Consultant, Digital Cyclone, Minnetonka, MN. Participated in the development of the essay on christmas My-Cast.com local weather forecasting system. Mathesis Tester! Worked extensively with Java 2 including threads, TCP/IP sockets, Swing, Java 2D, Java Servlets, and on christmas, JDBC on the Solaris Unix platform along with the Oracle RDBMS. Anthropology! Designed and built a high-availability middle tier that cached hundreds of megabytes of data. This data was refreshed at 3-hour intervals.
A key element of the design was to recycle large data structure objects to ease the short essay burden on characteristics essays, the garbage collector (without the recycling, garbage collection would sometimes freeze up the application for long periods of essay vacation, time - up to ten minutes!). This server was multithreaded and was able to mathesis tester, quickly and safely handle simultaneous data requests coming in over TCP/IP socket connections. Short On Christmas! Architected, designed, and developed a browser-based status and configuration administration tool. This Java Servlet-based tool generated forms and HTML pages used to convey the current status of insomnia essays, various servers behind the scenes in the My-Cast system. The servlet also facilitated the on-the-fly changing of vacation, some configuration parameters of the 50 essays learning to read answers servers being monitored. Architected, designed, and developed a browser-based load-testing tool. This Java servlet-based tool generated a form to accept testing parameters and then launched background threads to load test a server with thousands of simultaneous requests. The timing results of the vacation load testing were calculated and displayed by the servlet. Used J2EE Servlets running on essays, Tomcat and iPlanet; JDBC and SQL to talk to Oracle; extensive multithreading and TCP/IP networking; Swing; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; Java 2D API; Sun's Solaris Unix for the development environment, Vim for vacation, editing; CVS for version control.
Programix Incorporated, Minneapolis, MN. January 1998 - May 2000. Java Consultant, Sylvan Prometric, Edina, MN. Collaborated in the design of insomnia essays, a distributed, n-tier Client/Server application. Design goals included creating a very thin client capable of short essay vacation, running in a browser or as a stand-alone application. Design also called for insomnia essays, a highly scalable server capable of load balancing with other servers. Worked extensively with Java 1.1 and 1.2 including threads, TCP/IP sockets, image processing, and AWT (including building custom lightweight components), Swing, Java 2D, Java Servlets, XML parsing, JDBC, and RMI. Explored early EJB technologies.
Explored early Java Web Start technology. Used Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) and Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques using Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Rational Rose. Used JBuilder, Kawa, Vi, Vim, MKS Source Integrity, and Sybase RDBMS. Assisted in the evaluation and recruitment of additional development staff. Programix Incorporated, Minneapolis, MN.
May 1997 - January 1998. Java Consultant, TECo Incorporated, Edina, MN. Coded Java applications on vacation, both client-side and server-side using JDBC, RMI, TCP/IP sockets, and advanced multithreading. Lead the statements abuse design of essay on christmas, Java software architecture for distributed computing. ATT and Lucent Technologies, Whippany, NJ. February 1995 - January 1997. Head Software Designer and System Architect, Environment and Safety Systems Development Group. Led investigation of distributed processing model to support a Graphical User Interface for new applications. Conceived, designed, and led implementation of software architecture for new systems including the nsf dissertation anthropology processing split between the clients and short, the server. Designed and administered databases using the Informix Online Dynamic Server 7.1. Performed routine UNIX system administration and hardware/software upgrades on the Sun Microsystems hardware.
Assisted in statements on substance abuse, the analysis phase, which included data modeling and graphical user interface design for a safety system that was being re-engineered. Designed, coded, and tested application software written in HTML, CGI scripts, C, Informix ESQL/C, Informix 4GL, Informix Stored Procedure Language, PowerBuilder, and UNIX shell scripts. Investigated and developed prototype Java applications for future project development. Led development team in software engineering principles. The Chubb Institute, Parsippany, NJ. December 1995 - February 1997. Client/Server Curriculum Instructor - Evenings. Instructor for Sybase, UNIX, and C courses in essay, the Client/Server curriculum. Developed 250-page student guide for Sybase class. ATT, Whippany, NJ.
July 1992 - January 1995. Software Developer, Environment and Safety Systems Development Group. Designed, coded, and tested application software in C, Informix ESQL/C, Informix 4GL, and UNIX Korn shell scripts. Conceived, proposed, and nsf dissertation research, led migration of applications from vacation, Amdahl mainframe to a Sun Microsystems SPARCserver 1000 for a significant cost savings and performance improvement. Configured, assembled, and cutover to Sun 1000 running the Solaris 2.4 UNIX System V Release 4 operating system. Performed routine UNIX system administration and hardware/software upgrades. July 1990 - June 1992.
Support Engineer, Northeastern Regional Technical Assistance Center. Provided 24-hour support of 50 essays learning to read and write, 5ESS Digital Switching System to NYNEX, Southern New England Telephone, Rochester Telephone, and ATT Installation. Worked to provide customer approved solutions. Experience with politically hot problems involving upper management of external customers. Database administrator and developer for customer trouble tracking system used internally.
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MY CHRISTMAS HOLIDAYS | ENGLISHING - XTEC Blocs
Why Jonathan Safran Foer Chose to Give Up Meat. THE FRUITS OF FAMILY TREES. When I was young, I would often spend the weekend at my grandmother’s house. On my way in, Friday night, she would lift me from the ground in essay, one of her fire-smothering hugs. Mathesis Tester? And on the way out, Sunday afternoon, I was again taken into the air. It wasn’t until years later that I realized she was weighing me. My grandmother survived World War II barefoot, scavenging Eastern Europe for other people’s inedibles: rotting potatoes, discarded scraps of essay vacation, meat, skins and the bits that clung to 50 essays bones and short, pits.
So she never cared if I colored outside the lines, as long as I cut coupons along the dashes. I remember hotel buffets: while the thesis statements rest of us erected Golden Calves of breakfast, she would make sandwich upon sandwich to swaddle in napkins and stash in her bag for essay on christmas vacation, lunch. It was my grandmother who taught me that one tea bag makes as many cups of tea as you’re serving, and that every part of the apple is edible. Her obsession with food wasn’t an obsession with money. (Many of those coupons I clipped were for foods she would never buy.) Her obsession wasn’t with health. (She would beg me to drink Coke.)
My grandmother never set a place for herself at family dinners. Even when there was nothing more to be done — no soup bowls to thesis statements be topped off, no pots to be stirred or ovens checked — she stayed in the kitchen, like a vigilant guard (or prisoner) in essay on christmas, a tower. Mathesis Tester? As far as I could tell, the sustenance she got from the food she made didn’t require her to eat it. We thought she was the greatest chef who ever lived. My brothers and I would tell her as much several times a meal. And yet we were worldly enough kids to know that the on christmas greatest chef who ever lived would probably have more than one recipe (chicken with carrots), and that most great recipes involved more than two ingredients. And why didn’t we question her when she told us that dark food is inherently more healthful than light food, or that the bulk of the nutrients are found in the peel or crust? (The sandwiches of those weekend stays were made with the saved ends of david foster wallace, pumpernickel loaves.) She taught us that animals that are bigger than you are very good for you, animals that are smaller than you are good for you, fish (which aren’t animals) are fine for you, then tuna (which aren’t fish), then vegetables, fruits, cakes, cookies and sodas. Short Essay On Christmas Vacation? No foods are bad for you. Sugars are great.
Fats are tremendous. The fatter a child is, the fitter it is — especially if it’s a boy. Lunch is not one meal, but three, to be eaten at 11, 12:30 and 3. You are always starving. In fact, her chicken with carrots probably was the most delicious thing I’ve ever eaten. Insomnia Essays? But that had little to do with how it was prepared, or even how it tasted. Her food was delicious because we believed it was delicious. We believed in our grandmother’s cooking more fervently than we believed in God. More stories could be told about my grandmother than about anyone else I’ve ever met — her otherwordly childhood, the hairline margin of her survival, the totality of on christmas, her loss, her immigration and further loss, the triumph and tragedy of her assimilation — and while I will one day try to tell them to my children, we almost never told them to research one another. Nor did we call her by any of the obvious and earned titles. Vacation? We called her the Greatest Chef.
The story of essays, her relationship to food holds all of the other stories that could be told about her. Food, for her, is not food . Essay On Christmas? It is terror, dignity, gratitude, vengeance, joy, humiliation, religion, history and, of course, love. It was as if the fruits she always offered us were picked from the destroyed branches of our family tree. When I was 2, the of an heroes of all my bedtime books were animals. Short Essay? The first thing I can remember learning in school was how to pet a guinea pig without accidentally killing it.
One summer my family fostered a cousin’s dog. Mathesis Tester? I kicked it. Short On Christmas? My father told me we don’t kick animals. When I was 7, I mourned the death of a goldfish I’d won the previous weekend. I discovered that my father had flushed it down the characteristics of an toilet. I told my father — using other, less familial language — we don’t flush animals down the on christmas vacation toilet. When I was 9, I had a baby sitter who didn’t want to hurt anything.
She put it just like that when I asked her why she wasn’t having chicken with my older brother and characteristics of an, me. “ Hurt anything?” I asked. “You know that chicken is chicken, right?” Frank shot me a look: Mom and short essay on christmas, Dad entrusted this stupid woman with their precious babies? Her intention might or might not have been to convert us, but being a kid herself, she lacked whatever restraint it is learning to read and write answers that so often prevents a full telling of short on christmas, this particular story. Without drama or rhetoric, skipping over or euphemizing, she shared what she knew.
My brother and I looked at statements, each other, our mouths full of hurt chickens, and had simultaneous how-in-the-world-could-I-have-never-thought-of-that-before-and-why-on-earth-didn’t-someone-tell-me? moments. I put down my fork. Frank finished the meal and essay on christmas vacation, is probably eating a chicken as I type these words. What our baby sitter said made sense to me, not only because it seemed so self-evidently true, but also because it was the extension to insomnia essays food of essay vacation, everything my parents had taught me. We don’t hurt family members. We don’t hurt friends or strangers. We don’t even hurt upholstered furniture.
My not having thought to include farmed animals in cruise essay, that list didn’t make them the vacation exceptions to it. It just made me a child, ignorant of the insomnia essays world’s workings. Until I wasn’t. At which point I had to short vacation change my life. Until I didn’t. My vegetarianism, so bombastic and on substance abuse, unyielding in the beginning, lasted a few years, sputtered and quietly died. I never thought of essay on christmas, a response to our baby sitter’s code but found ways to david wallace cruise essay smudge, diminish and ignore it. Generally speaking, I didn’t cause hurt.
Generally speaking, I strove to do the right thing. Generally speaking, my conscience was clear enough. Short Essay On Christmas? Pass the chicken, I’m starving. Mark Twain said that quitting smoking is among the easiest things you can do; he did it all the insomnia essays time. I would add vegetarianism to the list of easy things. In high school I became vegetarian more times than I can now remember, most often as an effort to claim a bit of identity in a world of on christmas vacation, people whose identities seemed to come effortlessly. I wanted a slogan to distinguish my mom’s Volvo’s bumper, a bake-sale cause to fill the self-conscious half-hour of school break, an occasion to get closer to the breasts of activist women. (And I continued to insomnia essays think it was wrong to essay on christmas vacation hurt animals.) Which isn’t to say that I refrained from eating meat. Research? Only that I refrained in public.
Many dinners of those years began with my father asking, “Any dietary restrictions I need to know about tonight?” When I went to college, I started eating meat more earnestly. Essay On Christmas? Not “believing in it” — whatever that would mean — but willfully pushing the questions out of my mind. It might well have been the prevalence of vegetarianism on campus that discouraged my own — I find myself less likely to give money to characteristics essays a street musician whose case is overflowing with bills. Mitchell Feinberg for essay, The New York Times. But when, at the end of insomnia essays, my sophomore year, I became a philosophy major and started doing my first seriously pretentious thinking, I became a vegetarian again. The kind of active forgetting that I was sure meat eating required felt too paradoxical to the intellectual life I was trying to vacation shape. I didn’t know the details of mathesis tester, factory farming, but like most everyone, I knew the gist: it is miserable for animals, the short essay on christmas vacation environment, farmers, public health, biodiversity, rural communities, global poverty and so on.
I thought life could, should and must conform to the mold of reason, period. You can imagine how annoying this made me. When I graduated, I ate meat — lots of every kind of insomnia essays, meat — for about two years. Why? Because it tasted good. And because more important than reason in essay, shaping habits are the stories we tell ourselves and one another. And I told a forgiving story about myself to myself: I was only characteristics essays, human. Then I was set up on a blind date with the woman who would become my wife. Vacation? And only a few weeks later we found ourselves talking about thesis statements two surprising topics: marriage and vacation, vegetarianism.
Her history with meat was remarkably similar to mine: there were things she believed while lying in bed at night, and there were choices made at the breakfast table the next morning. There was a gnawing (if only occasional and short-lived) dread that she was participating in something deeply wrong, and there was the acceptance of essay, complexity and fallibility. Like me, she had intuitions that were very strong, but apparently not strong enough. People marry for many different reasons, but one that animated our decision to take that step was the prospect of explicitly marking a new beginning. Jewish ritual and symbolism strongly encourage this notion of demarcating a sharp division with what came before — the most well-known example being the smashing of the glass at the end of the wedding ceremony. Things were as they were, but they will be different now. Things will be better. Essay On Christmas? We will be better. Sounds and feels great, but better how?
I could think of endless ways to make myself better (I could learn foreign languages, be more patient, work harder), but I’d already made too many such vows to trust them anymore. I could also think of ways to nsf dissertation research anthropology make “us” better, but the meaningful things we can agree on and change in a relationship are few. Eating animals, a concern we’d both had and had both forgotten, seemed like a place to start. So much intersects there, and short, so much could flow from it. Research Anthropology? In the same week, we became engaged and vegetarian. Of course our wedding wasn’t vegetarian, because we persuaded ourselves that it was only fair to offer animal protein to our guests, some of whom traveled from great distances to short essay on christmas share our joy. (Find that logic hard to nsf dissertation research follow?) And we ate fish on our honeymoon, but we were in Japan, and when in Japan. . . . And back in our new home, we did occasionally eat burgers and chicken soup and smoked salmon and short essay on christmas, tuna steaks. But only whenever we felt like it.
And that, I thought, was that. And I thought that was just fine. I assumed we’d maintain a diet of conscientious inconsistency. Why should eating be different from any of the other ethical realms of our lives? We were honest people who occasionally told lies, careful friends who sometimes acted clumsily. Insomnia Essays? We were vegetarians who from time to essay on christmas vacation time ate meat.
But then we decided to have a child, and that was a different story that would necessitate a different story. About half an hour after my son was born, I went into 50 essays to read and write answers the waiting room to tell the on christmas gathered family the good news. “You said ‘he’! So it’s a boy?” “Who does he look like?”
“Tell us everything!” I answered their questions as quickly as I could, then went to the corner and turned on my cellphone. “Grandma,” I said. Insomnia Essays? “We have a baby.” Her only short, phone is in the kitchen. She picked up halfway into the first ring.
It was just after midnight. Had she been clipping coupons? Preparing chicken with carrots to wallace cruise ship essay freeze for someone else to eat at some future meal? I’d never once seen or heard her cry, but tears pushed through her words as she asked, “How much does it weigh?” A few days after we came home from the short essay on christmas hospital, I sent a letter to a friend, including a photo of 50 essays, my son and some first impressions of fatherhood.
He responded, simply, “Everything is short essay on christmas possible again.” It was the perfect thing to write, because that was exactly how it felt. The world itself had another chance. Seconds after being born, my son was breast-feeding. I watched him with an characteristics of an essays awe that had no precedent in my life. Without explanation or experience, he knew what to do. Essay On Christmas Vacation? Millions of years of mathesis tester, evolution had wound the knowledge into short on christmas vacation him, as it had encoded beating into his tiny heart and expansion and contraction into his newly dry lungs. Almost four years later, he is a big brother and a remarkably sophisticated little conversationalist. Increasingly the food he eats is digested together with stories we tell.
Feeding my children is not like feeding myself: it matters more. Foster Wallace Ship? It matters because food matters (their physical health matters, the pleasure they take in eating matters), and because the stories that are served with food matter. Mitchell Feinberg for essay on christmas, The New York Times. Some of insomnia essays, my happiest childhood memories are of sushi “lunch dates” with my mom, and eating my dad’s turkey burgers with mustard and essay on christmas, grilled onions at backyard celebrations, and of course my grandmother’s chicken with carrots. Those occasions simply wouldn’t have been the same without those foods — and that is important. To give up the taste of sushi, turkey or chicken is a loss that extends beyond giving up a pleasurable eating experience. Changing what we eat and 50 essays learning and write answers, letting tastes fade from memory create a kind of vacation, cultural loss, a forgetting. But perhaps this kind of forgetfulness is worth accepting — even worth cultivating (forgetting, too, can be cultivated). To remember my values, I need to characteristics lose certain tastes and find other handles for the memories that they once helped me carry.
My wife and essay vacation, I have chosen to bring up our children as vegetarians. In another time or place, we might have made a different decision. But the realities of our present moment compelled us to make that choice. According to an analysis of U.S.D.A. data by the advocacy group Farm Forward, factory farms now produce more than 99 percent of the animals eaten in nsf dissertation anthropology, this country. And despite labels that suggest otherwise, genuine alternatives — which do exist, and make many of the ethical questions about short meat moot — are very difficult for even an educated eater to find.
I don’t have the ability to do so with regularity and confidence. (“Free range,” “cage free,” “natural” and “organic” are nearly meaningless when it comes to animal welfare.) According to thesis statements on substance abuse reports by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the short essay vacation U.N. and learning to read and write answers, others, factory farming has made animal agriculture the No. Short Essay? 1 contributor to global warming (it is significantly more destructive than transportation alone), and characteristics of an, one of the Top 2 or 3 causes of short essay vacation, all of the most serious environmental problems, both global and local: air and insomnia essays, water pollution, deforestation, loss of biodiversity. . . . Eating factory-farmed animals — which is to short essay vacation say virtually every piece of meat sold in supermarkets and prepared in restaurants — is almost certainly the thesis on substance single worst thing that humans do to the environment. Every factory-farmed animal is, as a practice, treated in ways that would be illegal if it were a dog or a cat. Turkeys have been so genetically modified they are incapable of natural reproduction. To acknowledge that these things matter is not sentimental. It is a confrontation with the facts about animals and ourselves. On Christmas? We know these things matter. Meat and seafood are in characteristics of an essays, no way necessary for my family — unlike some in the world, we have easy access to short essay on christmas a wide variety of thesis statements on substance abuse, other foods. And we are healthier without it.
So our choices aren’t constrained. While the cultural uses of meat can be replaced — my mother and I now eat Italian, my father grills veggie burgers, my grandmother invented her own “vegetarian chopped liver” — there is still the question of short vacation, pleasure. A vegetarian diet can be rich and fully enjoyable, but I couldn’t honestly argue, as many vegetarians try to, that it is as rich as a diet that includes meat. (Those who eat chimpanzee look at the Western diet as sadly deficient of a great pleasure.) I love calamari, I love roasted chicken, I love a good steak. Of An? But I don’t love them without limit. This isn’t animal experimentation, where you can imagine some proportionate good at short on christmas vacation, the other end of the suffering. This is what we feel like eating. Yet taste, the crudest of our senses, has been exempted from the learning to read answers ethical rules that govern our other senses. Why?
Why doesn’t a horny person have as strong a claim to raping an animal as a hungry one does to confining, killing and eating it? It’s easy to dismiss that question but hard to respond to it. Try to imagine any end other than taste for which it would be justifiable to do what we do to farmed animals. Children confront us with our paradoxes and on christmas, dishonesty, and we are exposed. You need to find an answer for every why — Why do we do this? Why don’t we do that? — and often there isn’t a good one. So you say, simply, because. Or you tell a story that you know isn’t true. Mathesis Tester? And whether or not your face reddens, you blush. The shame of parenthood — which is a good shame — is that we want our children to be more whole than we are, to have satisfactory answers.
My children not only short essay, inspired me to reconsider what kind of eating animal I would be, but also shamed me into reconsideration. And then, one day, they will choose for david cruise ship essay, themselves. I don’t know what my reaction will be if they decide to eat meat. (I don’t know what my reaction will be if they decide to on christmas renounce their Judaism, root for the Red Sox or register Republican.) I’m not as worried about mathesis tester what they will choose as much as my ability to make them conscious of the choices before them. I won’t measure my success as a parent by short essay, whether my children share my values, but by whether they act according to their own. In the meantime, my choice on their behalf means they will never eat their great-grandmother’s singular dish.
They will never receive that unique and most direct expression of her love, will perhaps never think of her as the mathesis tester greatest chef who ever lived. Short Essay On Christmas Vacation? Her primal story, our family’s primal story, will have to change. Or will it? It wasn’t until I became a parent that I understood my grandmother’s cooking. The greatest chef who ever lived wasn’t preparing food, but humans. Nsf Dissertation Anthropology? I’m thinking of short essay, those Saturday afternoons at her kitchen table, just the two of us — black bread in mathesis tester, the glowing toaster, a humming refrigerator that couldn’t be seen through its veil of family photographs. Over pumpernickel ends and Coke, she would tell me about her escape from short, Europe, the foods she had to eat and nsf dissertation research, those she wouldn’t. It was the story of her life — “Listen to me,” she would plead — and short, I knew a vital lesson was being transmitted, even if I didn’t know, as a child, what that lesson was. I know, now, what it was. “We weren’t rich, but we always had enough. Thursday we baked bread, and challah and rolls, and insomnia essays, they lasted the essay whole week.
Friday we had pancakes. Shabbat we always had a chicken, and soup with noodles. You would go to the butcher and ask for insomnia essays, a little more fat. Short Essay Vacation? The fattiest piece was the anthropology best piece. It wasn’t like now.
We didn’t have refrigerators, but we had milk and cheese. We didn’t have every kind of vegetable, but we had enough. The things that you have here and short vacation, take for granted. . . . But we were happy. Characteristics Of An Essays? We didn’t know any better. And we took what we had for granted, too.
“Then it all changed. During the war it was hell on earth, and I had nothing. I left my family, you know. Short? I was always running, day and mathesis tester, night, because the Germans were always right behind me. Short? If you stopped, you died. There was never enough food. 50 Essays Learning To Read And Write Answers? I became sicker and sicker from not eating, and I’m not just talking about short vacation being skin and bones. I had sores all over my body. It became difficult to move. I wasn’t too good to eat from of an essays, a garbage can.
I ate the parts others wouldn’t eat. If you helped yourself, you could survive. I took whatever I could find. I ate things I wouldn’t tell you about. “Even at the worst times, there were good people, too. Someone taught me to short tie the of an essays ends of on christmas vacation, my pants so I could fill the legs with any potatoes I was able to steal. I walked miles and insomnia essays, miles like that, because you never knew when you would be lucky again.
Someone gave me a little rice, once, and short, I traveled two days to a market and traded it for some soap, and statements abuse, then traveled to short on christmas another market and traded the soap for some beans. You had to have luck and intuition. “The worst it got was near the end. A lot of people died right at the end, and cruise essay, I didn’t know if I could make it another day. A farmer, a Russian, God bless him, he saw my condition, and he went into his house and essay, came out with a piece of david ship essay, meat for me.” “He saved your life.” “You didn’t eat it?” “It was pork. I wouldn’t eat pork.” “What do you mean why?” “What, because it wasn’t kosher?”
“But not even to save your life?” “If nothing matters, there’s nothing to save.” Jonathan Safran Foer is a novelist. This article is adapted from his coming book, “Eating Animals,” which will be published in November. The actor has built a career, and short essay on christmas vacation, a passionate fan base, playing supporting roles; now, at 60, she has become an unconventional star. How Sarte, cigarette smoke and questions of the self gave way to on substance an obsession with apocalypse. What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by reason of insanity?
Often the answer is involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital — with no end in sight.
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Short essay on christmas vacation
7 Power Words That MUST Be on on christmas, Your Resume. Another resume from thesis on substance abuse, another early careerist. Another rejection. Essay On Christmas Vacation. Not necessarily because of typos on the resume or formatting issues, a lack of learning to read and write, internships or other forms of relevant experience. And certainly not because of a low GPA or a diploma from on christmas vacation, a not-so-prestigious school.
Because today, employers are looking for insomnia essays certain characteristics above all else; aspects of your work life that make you stand out above all your competitors. And trust me when I say that those traits have nothing to essay, do with being “detail-oriented”, a “hard worker” or a “team player” – or any other cliche now included on almost every resume. To get noticed by a recruiter today, applicants must show – in just one or two pages: The best way to characteristics, do that? Include these seven power words, phrases (and, yes, even symbols and numbers) while showing real-world impact: Employers now are doing more with less: less investment, less management and fewer employees. To be considered a strong candidate, you must show that you work well with the existing team while creating solutions with the resources available.
Be sure to include: An example where you brought a team together, or where you and your team worked together to exceed expectations. A big part of collaboration is knowing when it is time to step up and vacation, lead. Insomnia Essays. Why? Because recruiters recognize many other admirable (and hireable) traits in leaders: effective listening, decision-making, confidence, ability to motivate others toward a common goal, etc. Be sure to include: A time when your leadership made a significant impact; show where the problem started and the end result as driven by your efforts.
Communication skills remain the Number 1 in-demand skill by employers – and short essay vacation, quite often, the Number 1 source of disappointment. The applicant who demonstrates effective (and confident) writing, effective meeting management and confident public speaking will rise above the competition. Be sure to include: An editor! Your chance to prove your communication skills are well above average disappears about two seconds after a recruiter sees a typo in your cover letter, resume or LinkedIn profile. From your first job to your first corner office with a view, the proven capacity to take on a challenge, assess the alternatives and create a solution is in high-demand by employers. In today’s job market, show you welcome this challenge … and you’re on your way to an interview. Be sure to include: A challenge you faced, the solution incorporated and the impact of your problem-solving ability. Insomnia Essays. In many aspects of our professional lives, we simply can’t rely on our education or experience to short on christmas vacation, help us through a tough situation; we need to quickly learn what we don’t know. The ability to self-learn – through Google, forums, helpdesks, Q A sites, MOOCs, etc. On Substance. – is a huge asset to a prospective employer. Be sure to short essay on christmas vacation, include: In your “Summary of Skills” demonstrate your willingness to cruise ship essay, self-learn in order to problem solve and collaborate more effectively.
In the “Knowledge and Achievements” section of your resume, list the relevant courses, credentials and essay on christmas, informal learning you’ve taken on outside higher education and mathesis tester, mandatory training. Throughout this post, we’ve talked about showing impact and the end results of your actions and on christmas, leadership. There is simply no better way to do that than to quantify using percentages and dollar signs. This is what employers understand; this is how they – in less than a second – assess your contributions. Insomnia Essays. Be sure to include: Concise statements that replace cliches like “proven sales professional” with quantified statements like “Increased sales by $300,000 in my region” and “Exceeded quota by 152% over 5 years.” Every Acronym and short, Keyword Relevant to Your Industry. Thesis Statements On Substance. Especially in a larger company: before your resume is ever seen by on christmas vacation, a recruiter, you must get past the insomnia essays Applicant Tracking System (ATS) – a program used by recruiters to filter out resumes that don’t meet minimum qualifications.
The primary tool used: keyword and acronym searches. Vacation. If your resume lacks the specified keywords and acronyms, the assumption is that you don’t yet have a clear grasp of the job or industry – and your resume will not pass the ATS test. Be sure to include: In full sentences, insert the relevant keywords and acronyms (but avoid the buzzwords!) from the research job description and from within your industry – including the software used and the regulations the company must abide by. Avoid resume rejection. Vacation. Don’t include the same old cliches, passive words like “assisted” and empty words like “dynamic” and thesis statements on substance abuse, “successfully”. Essay. Instead, show off your potential. Prove you’re a good fit. Demonstrate your impact.
All it takes, is to use these power words on the next version of your resume. Like this post? Subscribe to get even more brilliance, and exclusive content, in your Inbox! About the 50 essays Author: CEO and Founder of YouTern, Mark Babbitt is a serial mentor who has been quoted in short essay vacation the Wall Street Journal, Mashable, Forbes and Under30CEO.com regarding job search, career development, internships and higher education’s role in david foster ship preparing emerging talent for the workforce. A keynote speaker and short on christmas, blogger, Mark’s contributions include Huffington Post, Bloomberg News, Switch and Shift, and Under30CEO. Mark has been honored to be named to insomnia essays, GenJuice’s list of vacation, “Top 100 Most Desirable Mentors” , HR Examiner’s “Top 25 Trendspotters in HR” and CareerBliss’ “Top 10 Gen Y Career Experts”. Mark is currently working on two new books: “A World Gone Social: How Business Must Adapt to anthropology, Survive (AMACOM, June 2014) with Ted Coine and “The Ultimate Guide to Internships (And Making Your College Years Matter Again)” (Allworth, September 2014). Contact Mark via email or on on christmas, Twitter! Mark, this is a great addition to the list of 50 essays learning, #8220;must read#8221; items for prospective interns or really any employee.
While the sole purpose of an ATS is not to on christmas, screen out, it works that way if the job seeker is naive on how it works. In order to be considered you first have to of an, be seen. Differentiating yourself from the on christmas hundreds of other possible applicants is the only way to get that interview and ultimately a job. I might add that words without substance can be an even bigger fail. You may make it past the ATS with a laundry list of buzzwords, but an experienced recruiter or screener will see that immediately.
Everything must be in context#8230; if you have a skill flaunt it! If you just use its name, there is no evidence you even know what it means. The people behind the system [for the most part] are not stupid so don#8217;t insult their intelligence. YouTern advocates high-quality, mentor-based internships and connects emerging talent to dynamic leaders and mentors at nsf dissertation research start-ups, entrepreneurial small businesses and non-profits!
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essay paper pcitures Young children drawing: the significance of the context. College of Ripon and York. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, 13-15 September 2001. The role of drawing in essay vacation, children's learning is frequently misunderstood. Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to draw is often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to writing' rather than communication and creativity. Yet drawing is mathesis tester, one of the many languages which children use to short, 'talk' about their world, both to themselves and to others (Dyson, 1993, Gallas, 1994, Kress, 1997, Pahl, 1999, Lindqvist, 2001). Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences (Malchiodi, 1998 Matthews, 1994, 1999).
This paper uses data, collected as part of a longitudinal research project about young children and drawing across settings, to foster wallace cruise ship, illustrate the importance of the context, physical, social and cultural, in which drawing takes place. The hypotheses will be explored that the context in which a child draws: has an impact upon both the frequency with which the child draws and the number of drawings produced; has an impact upon what he/she perceives to be appropriate to draw; is populated by short vacation, significant others whose belief systems, both generally and in relation to drawing, impact upon the belief systems of the learning to read child. Implications for early childhood education will be drawn. The role of drawing in essay vacation, children's development. Until relatively recently the study of children's drawings has reflected a 'top down' approach which takes the pursuit of realistic representation as its goal and a stage theory which has been generalised from the work of Luquet (1927), Piaget (Inhelder Piaget, 1958), and Kellogg (1970) as its model of development (Matthews, 1992:26, 1999:84). This approach, reflected in the National Curriculum programme of david foster wallace essay study for Art (DES, 1991), has cast the young child in an outdated deficit role which does not reflect the view held by early years educators of children as 'able learners, powerful thinkers, feeling human beings' (Nutbrown, 1996, xv). Also damaging to some extent, for short essay on christmas the understanding of the role of drawing in young children's learning, has been the exchange of the word 'drawing' for 'mark making' in educare settings (Athey, 1990, Nutbrown, 1994).
The term, in david foster wallace, emphasising the vacation importance of children's earliest marks for writing development, can give the david foster wallace cruise essay message that pictorial representation is inferior to the more important role that the reading and writing of symbols has been given within the National Curriculum and within society in general. This is short vacation, a narrow view of mathesis tester literacy, which once again does little to reflect the young child's holistic abilities. Bronfenbrenner's (1979) seminal ecological model of human development gives insights into how young children are situated as learners by the societies in which they are nurtured and educated. His model is short essay on christmas, supported by studies of young children in home/ pre-school and school settings (Tizard and Hughes, 1984; Trevarthen, 1995; Schaffer, 1992) which have shown children to be. '. skilful in negotiating a diverse repertoire of relationships, actively contributing to the process of their own development and recognising that their status and power as social actors varies between contexts and cultures.' (Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, 1998:1) These studies have concentrated upon the relationships between children and insomnia essays their 'significant others'. Short Essay On Christmas Vacation? Influenced by learning and write, Vygotsky (1962, 1967), the key foci have been language and to a lesser extent play.
Little is short on christmas vacation, known, however, about the impact upon a child's use of drawing of firstly the research anthropology different settings of home and pre-school or school, and short vacation secondly the roles taken by 'significant' others in 'formal' and 'informal' learning contexts, particularly over any length of time. The influence of research anthropology context on young children's drawing development. This paper takes a sociocultural approach to the study of young children's drawings. It recognises that: the child is a co-constructor of meaning and an active player in his or her world. culture acts as mediator between the child and his/ her environment. the role of adults and more able peers/ siblings is significant in 'scaffolding' learning.
the role of the peer group is significant in a young child's learning. language, play, objects, artefacts, and the meanings attributed to them, are mediating tools within and across cultures in children's learning. (Bruner, 1996; Vygotsky, 1962, 1967; Rogoff, 1990; Wertsch, 1985) Drawing is short essay on christmas, seen to have originated from children's physical action (Matthews, 1994; 1999) and play (Vygotsky, 1995). David Wallace Ship? Matthews (1999) explores young children's intentional actions in making drawings of their own body movements and short on christmas the sounds and movements of objects around them. He calls these 'action representations'. In common with Athey (1990) he describes development as 'an interaction between what is unfolding in the child and what is available within the environment' (Matthews, 1994).
Athey concentrates on drawing as a reflection of children's inner schematic representations, the characteristics essays developing organisational or conceptual systems by short essay vacation, which they make sense of diverse aspects of life. Research Anthropology? Matthews, however, sees children's drawings 'located within a family of short essay expressive and symbolic actions used fluently by children between 3 and 4 years of age' (1999:49). He draws attention to research, the interrelationship of a range of short conceptual interests and emotional concerns, which are reflected within children's 'artistic' representations. Referencing the work of thesis statements Trevarthen (1980, 1995) he suggests that 'the basis for short on christmas the expression of emotion and the representation of objects and nsf dissertation events form within an interpersonal arena between caregiver and infant' (1999:17). Short Essay? It is within this interpersonal relationship that the child acquires 'skills in viewing, handling and 50 essays to read and write visually tracking objects, plus the short essay expressive and representational possibilities these might have. ' (1999:18). For Vygotsky there is a close relationship between play and art and 'the entire process through which children develop cultural awareness'. 'Vygotsky (1995) argues that children's creativity in its original form is syncretistic creativity, which means that the individual arts have yet to be separated and specialised.
Children do not differentiate between poetry and prose, narration and drama. Children draw pictures and tell a story at the same time; they act a role and create their lines as they go along. Children rarely spend a long time completing each creation, but produce something in an instant, focusing all their emotions on on substance abuse, what they are doing at short essay on christmas vacation that moment in time.' (Lindqvist, 2001:8) Play is seen by Lindqvist to create meaning. Insomnia Essays? She argues that it is a 'dynamic meeting between the child's inner life (emotions and thoughts) and its external world' and as such should not be interpreted as a 'realistic presentation of a certain action' but as reflecting reality 'on a deeper level'. Both play and art, in enabling the child to create an imaginary or fictitious situation, are seen to enable the child to move towards 'disembedded from action' thinking, towards abstractions from the here and now (Lindqvist, 2001).
Building upon the work of Wells (1986) and short essay on christmas vacation Bruner (1996) the term 'meaning making' is used extensively when considering the child as a learner from a sociocultural perspective. Dyson (1993) sees a symbol, be it a word, picture or dance, existing because of a 'human intention to insomnia essays, infuse some tangible form - a sound, a mark, a movement - with meaning and, thereby, to comment on or take action in the social world'. Symbol making is, for Dyson, 'the essence of being human' and drawing, as a symbolic system, is one of the ways humans liberate themselves 'from the here and now'. Geertz (1983) argues that people who share a culture share similar ways of infusing meaning into sounds (language), movement (dance), and lines (drawings), among other media. Children, by short essay, using symbols, join with others who share the same 'imaginative universe' or 'worlds of possibility'. Dyson illuminates the way drawing is helped by the critical role of talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving a graphic voice to an intention' (Dyson, 1993:24). She draws attention to thesis on substance, Vygotsky's description of drawing as a kind of essay 'graphic speech' (Dyson, 1982). Drawing as narrative in david, young children's development. If speech is seen to be internalised as thought (Vygotsky, 1978) can we assume that 'graphic speech' has its own internal visual narrative? Gallas (1994:xv) takes the view that children's personal narratives, formed in short essay, an attempt to characteristics of an, order and explain the world from short essay on christmas vacation, all aspects of insomnia essays their experience, 'are often part of the silent language that embodies thinking'.
She takes 'an expanded view' of children's narratives, not confining them to the spoken or written word, but including the stories they tell from early childhood 'in dramatic play, in their drawings and paintings, in movement and spontaneous song.' In putting forward her view of the essay young child as a powerful meaning maker, Gallas draws attention to adults within school settings not enabling young children to essays, make use of their 'enormous number of short on christmas vacation innate tools for acquiring knowledge' (xv) or their different modes of representation which might be visually, verbally or kinaesthetically based. '. Children do not naturally limit the forms that their expressions take. Because adult communication relies so heavily on spoken and written language, however, schools necessarily reflect that orientation and channel children's narratives into a very narrow realm of of an essays expressions, in effect limiting rather than broadening the child's expressive capabilities.' (Gallas, 1994:xv) Because of years spent with adults less flexible in thinking and communication she feels that most children 'lose their natural gifts for narrative expression.' (xvi). There is a lack of short essay vacation recognition by most adults of the power of cruise ship essay drawing in serving a narrative function for children by externalising their experiences, thoughts and feelings through visual images. Malchiodi (1998) gives drawing a dual role as a narrative form, enabling children to express their individual stories through a developmentally appropriate form of essay communication and providing a focus for talking about their drawings. Given the emphasis on reading and cruise ship writing within the statutory curriculum, the innovative work of Kress (1997) on young children's meaning making has importantly drawn attention to the need for short on christmas vacation a broader view of mathesis tester literacy, which includes both the reading and short on christmas vacation making of visual signs. He argues that children are bombarded with a variety of stimuli both static (pictures, signs, posters) and 50 essays moving (T.V., video, computer imagery). They are learning to decode the meaning of these images, alongside the more experienced users of these semiotics, within the communities in which they are reared. Kress's thesis is that 'children act multi-modally, both in the things they use, the objects they make, and in the engagement of their bodies; there is no separation of body and short essay vacation mind' (ibid.: 97).
He draws on detailed observations of nsf dissertation anthropology his own young children engaged in multi-model representations using: found materials to make 'models' household furniture and objects mingled with toys to make 'worlds' in which to act out involved narratives in play. mark-making media such as felt tips and short essay paint to 'draw' elaborate versions of their understanding of the world around them. He calls these 'the energetic, interested, intentional action of children in their effects on their world' (114). He argues that: 'It is essential that . children are encouraged . in their fundamental disposition towards multi-modal forms of text and meaning making. . Above all there will need to be particular emphasis on developing their awareness about the nsf dissertation anthropology dynamic interaction between the various modes, and their awareness that all modes are constantly changing in their interaction with other modes; and through the short on christmas vacation sign maker's use.' (154) Pahl (1999) uses Kress's thesis to nsf dissertation research, study children's meaning making in nursery education and essay on christmas notes that the objects children made in learning to read and write, the nursery settings often have a 'fluid quality'. Children create layers of narrative as they represent and re-represent versions of stories in their play. A shopping basket made from essay, a cereal packet and strips of card for role-play in the nursery might be transformed into a carrycot for a doll when the model was taken home. She argued that children had more opportunities to statements abuse, utilise fluidity in their meaning making at home where objects could be freely transformed from one function to another without the watchful gaze of an adult. Short Essay Vacation? She sees these 'lines of enquiry' offering scope for children to explore the gap between 'me' and mathesis tester 'not me' using the models they make as 'transactional objects'. The models children carry from nursery to home offer them opportunities to short vacation, explore the mathesis tester inner workings of their minds through the outer material representations of their thinking shaped in particular ways by the environments in which they try to record their understanding of the world. Drawing is seen by Kress and short essay on christmas vacation Pahl to be one of the many languages which children use to 'talk' about mathesis tester their world in informal settings, both to themselves and to others.
Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences and tell complex stories (Malchiodi, 1998, Matthews, 1994, 1999). Egan has drawn attention to the story form as a cultural universal which 'reflects a basic and powerful form in which we make sense of the world and experience.'(1989:2) Given the emphasis on short essay on christmas vacation, a traditional view of literacy and narrative within the statutory English curriculum, it is not surprising that oral storying and story writing have received far more attention within research than storying through drawing. Exploring the young child's use of drawing from nsf dissertation research anthropology, a socio-cultural perspective allows the impact upon the young child's drawing behaviours of the views and beliefs of older and on christmas more significant others across both home and pre-school settings to be highlighted. It also emphasises how the mathesis tester young child, operating at profound levels both cognitively and emotionally, uses narrative across modes of representation which include drawing. Short introduction to short essay, project. This paper draws on data collected as part of a three year, longitudinal research project 'Young Children Drawing at Home, Pre-school and School: the influence of the socio-cultural context'. Evidence was collected for one month, at the beginning of the school year to compile case studies of seven children's use of drawing across home, pre-school and school settings. It was a longitudinal study that took place over a three-year period. Characteristics Of An? Two key research instruments were used for data collection: Booklets of each child's drawings collected by essay, the significant adults in each setting. Semi-structured interviews with significant adults and with the children.
In addition contextual information was gathered via photographs/ digital images taken in the home and pre-school/ school contexts and, during the first phase of the project, observations of the children in their settings. The function of the detailed contextual data was to capture the 'situated' nature of the drawing episodes and outcomes. The evidence was collected from September 1998 until November 2001 during a period of continuing change in the UK for all involved in and write, both pre- and primary schooling. Government strategies introduced during this period included, for example, statutory baseline assessment, the Literacy Hour and the daily numeracy lesson. The following detailed exemplar, drawn from the study, concentrates upon the experiences of one child and shows how he begins to use drawings as a narrative form to 'talk' to himself and to short on christmas vacation, others and by doing so constructs new meanings. His drawings reflect versions of meaning making from the socio-cultural context in which he constructs his narratives and particularly reflect the influence of TV and video culture. There is evidence that the insomnia essays cultural assumptions about drawing in on christmas, the child's home and pre-school/ school contexts affect what he draws, how he draws and how often he draws. Yet the child demonstrates a unique drawing style and an exploration through line of nsf dissertation intensely personal responses to experiences. In doing so he participates in on christmas vacation, the making of his culture (Kress, 1997) and thesis shows himself to be an short essay on christmas, able and powerful storyteller. Phase 1: Luke aged three, drawing at home. At just turned three Luke was the youngest child in the sample.
He lived in an inner city council house during phase one of the project and moved to private housing prior to phase two. He had one younger brother. Luke attended a Family Centre three days a week. The drawings Luke completed at characteristics of an home revealed a fertile imagination and a preoccupation with 'scary' things. Short On Christmas Vacation? His drawing 'A crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs' (Figure 1) reflects a fascination with crocodiles. David Foster Wallace? This preoccupation also emerged in short essay on christmas vacation, the narratives he wove into his solitary play episodes at home. Thesis? His mother described him frantically 'rowing' a baby bath with coat hangers across the living room floor with cushions strategically positioned as stepping stones trying to avoid an imaginary crocodile. With great speed the same coat hangers were transformed from fishing rods to oars as Luke's imaginative play script changed. The element of scariness was a regular part of mum's interactions with the boys, part of what she called 'our silly time' when they sang and danced together. 'We've a song about crocodiles from Pontins when I was a kid - Never Smile at a Crocodile' . The second drawing from this period reflected Luke's interest in imagery from the television screen.
His mother explained his habitual response to essay on christmas, an advertisement for fruit pastilles which featured a strawberry eating a little boy (Figure 2) 'When he watches you can see him backing away from the insomnia essays telly.' The television and videos were a big part of on christmas vacation Luke's mother's day and she enjoyed watching children's programmes with the children, often referring to characters from insomnia essays, them in conversation and building them into play with the children. Luke used a 'megasketcher' to draw with as he didn't have access to paper and pens all the time. He spent a lot of time recording and erasing continuous rotations, drawing quickly and with great energy. Short Essay On Christmas? Paper, pens and scissors were reserved for when his younger brother was asleep and were used at the kitchen table. Luke was fascinated by scissors and systematically cut paper into strips, turned each strip at a right angle and 50 essays and write answers cut it into a smaller strip until he was left with tiny pieces of paper. Sometimes he made a mark on short essay on christmas vacation, the paper as a prop for his cutting action. His mother commented ' He's forever making squiggles with the pen, then cutting them out and then making shapes with the cuttings. He'll cut out david wallace cruise ship essay something not trying to make the shape, then he'll see it fall down and he'll say 'Oh look, I've made a triangle.' He'll pretend he made it properly.' Luke's mother drew with or for him and described how when she tried to short, draw the teletubbies for him he insisted on the detail being a correct representation: 'I did La La and wallace cruise ship essay he said 'La La's head doesn't go like that.' You have got get the right colour, the on christmas vacation right shade.' Phases 1 and david wallace 2: Luke aged three and four, drawing at the Family Centre.
During both phase one and phase two of the project there were strong messages given by staff at the Family Centre, to both Luke and his mother, about the importance of drawing people. The key workers within the Family Centre were aware of the need for a broad range of activities, for essay on christmas vacation child choice and of the need for young children to be involved in exploration and self-expression. Their conversations generally extended individual children's interests. However the messages given by 'Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on nsf dissertation research, Entering Compulsory Education' (SCAA, 1996), gave further emphasis to a tendency within the Family Centre for key workers to channel children towards emergent and adult recognisable mark making. The nursery manager felt there was pressure from parents for key workers to be able to explain how drawing led to formal learning i.e. Essay Vacation? writing. The practice within the setting of including drawing within the insomnia essays term 'mark making' allowed drawing a valid place within the curriculum, but seemed to be devaluing drawing as an activity in its own right. Essay On Christmas Vacation? It was being interpreted as a stage which children moved away from, as they became literate. The Family Centre manager commented 'When they (key workers) hear mark making, it doesn't matter how many times you go through it, they still think writing. That's there at the back of the mind all the time. Essays? That's not to say that if a child did a row of circles they wouldn't be impressed by that, but only because it's starting to look like letters.'
One of the ways in which the Family Centre gave messages about the purpose of drawing was by its inclusion within the child's developmental record, as part of a progression from horizontal and vertical marks through figure drawing and onto early writing. This check list of short on christmas competencies, shared with parents at progress meetings, seemed to dominate the 50 essays learning and write answers key workers drawing agenda, influencing their approach and discussions with children about the possible content of their drawings. Luke's mother, during the first phase of the project, was considered by the Family Centre to be pushing Luke to write before he was ready. They told her that they felt he was missing out essay on christmas vacation drawing figures, a stage considered important by insomnia essays, the staff and accepted as coming before writing. The drawings collected whilst Luke was at the Family Centre were mostly completed during the essay on christmas vacation afternoon session. The routine at the Family Centre was for the morning to be spent in 'free flow', with free choice of activities and rooms being allocated to a particular type of thesis statements activity e.g. large construction. For the afternoon sessions the children were allocated to a base under the on christmas vacation supervision of their key worker. This was a more pressured time for the key workers when they were more likely to 'set up' a directed art activity which was often linked to a half-termly theme. The afternoons were seen by of an, one key worker as being 'when you get time to do your display work, you know, the short on christmas pictures you want the children to mathesis tester, do.' It was also a time when they would update their developmental records and for Luke this meant a concentration on figure drawing. Both 'Mam' (Figure 3, phase one) and 'My Mummy' (Figure 4, phase two) were adult initiated drawings and essay reflected the setting and key worker's expectations of what a child of Luke's age should be drawing. 'Mam' was drawn following the key worker's modelling of insomnia essays a similar figure, and during the completion of 'My Mummy' Luke was shown where to put the eyes and nose, but did decide to put the hair on himself.
Luke's key worker commented 'We haven't the time to give them one-to-one experience and then perhaps there's something in essay, the profile - is able to thesis statements on substance, draw a face - and you think I haven't seen him do that, so you sit with him and on christmas vacation say. shall we see what we can do?' She gave suggestions to the children that would support their achievement of mathesis tester drawing competencies as set out in the developmental record saying - 'oh look you could do a circle for the face, two eyes, a nose and vacation a mouth see if you can do that'. Luke's key worker admitted difficulty in learning and write, interacting with a child who was drawing and essay on christmas vacation 'fell back' on suggesting that the child drew a face or drew his/ her mother. 'I do it, yes, because I'm stumped to know how I can help them.' Luke had a different key worker during phase two of the project who also used her understanding of stages in drawing development to underpin her decisions about intervening when children were drawing. 'Normally with drawings it is just scribbles on the paper. It moves onto circular movements and dots and thesis abuse then they will start drawing pictures and saying, 'that is mummy'. . Short On Christmas? We might not be able to recognise it but they will start saying what it is and mathesis tester then you will start seeing pictures of a head with arms and legs, and then they will start putting in the eyes and things.' She acknowledged that some children had difficulty in drawing people but that she encouraged them to have a go when she judged they were ready. 'I normally ask, start encouraging them to do that (draw mummy) when they say they have done a picture of their mummy or daddy. It might not look like that, but that is when I'll draw one and say 'can you do that', when they are ready to do it.' At three years old Luke was very reliant on the presence of his key worker as he was a tentative, nervous participant in Family Centre activities and sought the one-to-one conversations he had with his mother in the home context.
His preferred activities were cutting paper, dough and watching videos. Among his peers at the Family Centre he was unusual in his ability to remain captivated by video and short television imagery. 'He absolutely loves television. He is the one child who will sit there and be actually enthralled by it. He talks about what he watches on david essay, the television and video in detail - Jurassic park and an animal video.' His key worker at the Family Centre commented on his ability to enter into long monologues about home events with adults. 'His speech is very very good, very forward for his age. He can be very talkative and uses a lot of language that is older for him, a lot of adult words.' Perhaps influenced by children in short essay vacation, the setting, he gained the insomnia essays attention of his key worker by essay on christmas, involving her in his 'tea party' role play. Of An? She recorded his comments made whilst at play 'Would you like a piece of my chocolate cake. You can only have a little piece because I'm only chopping it into little bits.' The reoccurring play script of the tea party was also a means by which Luke could use clay or dough to satisfy his preoccupation with cutting into smaller and smaller strips. At the Family Centre Luke's key workers noted that he rarely chose to draw. Short On Christmas? 'Our house' (Figure 5, phase one) was completed without adult presence and although the drawing is 50 essays to read and write answers, named, its content can only be debated.
It may reflect the action and business of the home context, but it could also be the case that it was named following completion, in short essay on christmas, response to an adult enquiry. It had much in common with the images drawn with the Megasketcher in the home context. Luke's representation of 'Dr. Jekyll when he turned into a nasty monster' (Figure 6, phase one) was completed in statements on substance, response to an adult's request for him to draw. It reflects both Luke's continued use of drawing to explore and represent his fears and short the influence upon him of video or television images. His choice of topic followed discussion with the key worker about thesis statements on substance abuse what the content of the drawing would be.
Phase 2: Luke aged four, drawing at home. At home Luke's mother continued to limit Luke's access to paper and Luke still preferred to short essay vacation, link drawing with cutting. Because his younger brother no longer slept during the day drawing was now limited to when mum could sit with the children and supervise. She commented 'They sometimes see it (on plastic shelving) and insomnia essays say 'can we draw' or 'can we paint' and I'll say 'not now' or 'maybe later'. Paint at nursery ' out of sight, out of short essay vacation mind.' In response to Family Centre suggestions, Luke's mother encouraged him to david, draw people but felt she wasn't getting anywhere. 'He won't draw people. Short Essay? Very very rarely draws people.' 'Just colours in a shape, he'll do a circle and colour it in, then a triangle and mathesis tester colour it in.' Mum felt Luke got really frustrated because he couldn't make his drawings like the images he visualised. 'He'll draw a car, then he gets really frustrated because it isn't how he sees a car, and scribbles it out.' Still trying to support Luke in developing his drawing ability she asked him to copy pictures. 'When you see a picture, and you say to him 'Can you draw a picture of a whatever', he'll try and draw it. Because it doesn't look exactly like a pig, he'll say it's rubbish, and short on christmas vacation if it is the mega sketch, the zipper goes down and he won't even have it on.' Luke's mother gave examples of of an Luke's critical remarks about both her and his younger brother's drawings. 'That doesn't look nowt like a house. That doesn't look nowt like a cat, where's its tail?' The drawings collected during phase two by Luke's mother reflect her attempts to short on christmas, support his drawing and insomnia essays have probably mostly been instigated by her. 'Pumpkin' (Figure 7) is short vacation, a shared effort between Luke and his mother as is his attempt to draw around one of the leaves collected on 50 essays learning and write, the way home from the Family Centre (Figure 8). Short Essay On Christmas? The drawing of his brother, given to him as a birthday card (Figure 9) is the only evidence of Luke drawing freely on paper, but was still probably completed at his mother's request.
Phase 2: Luke aged four, meaning making through role-play. In contrast to Luke's frustration in relation to nsf dissertation, drawing, Luke's mother and key worker told of his increasing use of role play to act out both real life experiences and re-enact video scripts. His mother gave examples of both his fascination for tape measures - 'as soon as he sees it (a tape measure) it's gone, its disappeared, its clipped onto his trousers and he's a workman'- and essay on christmas vacation his preoccupation with the mathesis tester role of the doctor. The latter followed a recent, quite traumatic, visit with his asthmatic brother to hospital. Short On Christmas Vacation? Luke also assumed the role of key worker, both at home and at the Family Centre, turning his book around when reading it to show to mathesis tester, others. At the Family Centre his favourite book was 'Funny Bones' which fitted into his love/ hate relationship with frightening images.
His mother commented 'He likes being scared, not too scared obviously, but he loves making people jump. He loves being jumped upon as long as he knows it is going to happen.' At home Luke's mother built up Luke's sense of drama and atmosphere 'the night before Halloween there was a film 'Hocus Pocus' with witches, and it is a bit scary. Short Vacation? But what we did was we turned all the lights off, and put the pumpkin on top of the TV and lit it. ' The influence of time spent watching videos in the home context was very marked. His mother said 'When its on. David Foster Wallace Essay? he just sits and watches it but afterwards he will do like pretending that he is in that film, or that character. Short Essay On Christmas? Nine times out of ten he's always the baddy.' His mother discussed how he used familiar objects to support a role. 'He had the cruise ship essay radio cassette and the microphone on his lap, a little karaoke thing, and that's what he does, his character Woody, in on christmas, film, because they are all moving house, and he is in charge and characteristics of an essays he's telling them to get a moving buddy, a partner, so they won't get lost, and Luke is sat there copying it word for word. Even though it weren't on that day, he were like 'get them moving, everybody get one.' When watching a video Luke found the toys he had that were associated with that particular video. His mother said shopping had to include a visit to his favourite shop, the Disney Shop. The practitioners in the family centre also acknowledged that the biggest influence on Luke's play seemed to be videos, watched repeatedly in the home context. 'He will be playing something else but he will always go back to Jurassic Park.' At the Family Centre Luke used construction to support his play and often 'set up' the essay on christmas play scenario and then invited others to thesis statements on substance, join him. As the oldest child in the nursery, and essay on christmas vacation with the departure of the older children to school, Luke had obviously grown in confidence and mathesis tester was now a leader, particularly in role-play.
He had strong ideas about how the 'story' should be re-enacted. His key worker commented 'Some children will come over and stay for a little bit, but then if they don't do what he wants them to do, he says they are messing it up.' Luke complained to his mother about them not wanting to play 'Jurassic Park' 'You just can't get them to do what you want. they want to go and play Mums and Dads.' On one occasion, when asked by his key worker what they were playing, Luke replied 'We are being chased by monsters, dinosaurs and ghosts'. This was a recurring play theme, which in the Family Centre involved escaping from frightening situations and short essay on christmas it was followed through in the home context when other children were invited to foster wallace, play in short on christmas, the garden. One of answers his favourite games, introduced by Luke to neighbourhood friends, was 'stampede'. This again had been watched on video and was explained by his mother 'It is a load of short vacation animals chasing them.' 'The film starts off as a board game, but real things happen, like spiders come out and lions, oh it's really good and then there's a big, huge stampede. His mother commented that broadening his circle of insomnia essays friendships was causing Luke to ask questions. She gave the following examples of his search for meaning and understanding 'Where do you go if you die? What if you are good, what if you are bad? He thinks that you have to be old and have 'twisted neck' before you die.' 'When Hannah said her brother was in the graveyard 'What's he doing playing in there then?' 'He died' 'Children don't die' and they are arguing about it.' Phase 2: Luke aged four, moving towards formal writing.
Although Luke had not regularly and short essay voluntarily drawn people, as a four year old at learning answers the Family Centre he spent a short period of time each day as part of a small group of children preparing for statutory schooling the following September. All the key workers took turns in essay vacation, leading these sessions, which involved the children in working with numbers in addition to characteristics of an, the stories and singing they had when they were younger. The children were expected during these short sessions to 'fit in' with what the adults were doing and 'sit down and respond when spoken to'. The key worker commented that there would, during the coming year, be more concentration on short essay, preparing Luke to enter school and that this would include writing his name. Taking advice from the learning to read and write answers Family Centre staff, Luke's mother provided materials to support Luke in learning to essay vacation, write. 'We've got this learning to write thing and its like mazes when you've got to insomnia essays, go a certain way, and he's fantastic with them. He loves doing them, going through the gaps and doing squiggles.' Writing numbers was, however, not always seen so positively by Luke. '. Short Essay On Christmas Vacation? He recognises a load of numbers and letters, but as for essays writing them down. Essay On Christmas? I think from my view of him, because it doesn't actually look how it's drawn, he can get really angry. Luke's mother was proud of the fact that Luke recognised and could write his name, but she admitted that 'he gets really anxious and upset that he can't do it right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at home. It was very obvious from the beginning of phase three of the project that Luke was now drawing and characteristics of an essays writing a lot. Essay On Christmas? Cupboards had recently been built in the dining room at home, which stored the mathesis tester children's toys, games and paper.
Luke's mother felt this had influenced their choice of activity. 'With everything being put away I don't know if its out of essay sight out of mind.' There was an emphasis in the home on working at the table, either drawing or writing. The scissors and the Mega-sketcher were no longer readily available and characteristics essays although the boys were able to short essay, get their own paper from the shelf, pens were kept in the mother's bedside cabinet and she therefore again limited drawing. Although mum had said Luke wasn't cutting any more and chose to write and nsf dissertation research anthropology draw, Luke said he was not allowed to cut at home any more. It would seem that Luke's mother felt his preoccupation with scissors was not helping him to master the use of a pencil. Luke was now happy to draw. Mum thought this was because he was happy with the way drawings turned out. 'I think he can draw something now and recognise it. Essay On Christmas? Like he's done, and we say oh look that's really good and we'd know what it is mathesis tester, before he tells us.' There was a huge change in Luke's ability to essay on christmas, represent images in a way that he found satisfying and 50 essays learning to read answers which allowed him to use them to communicate with others.
The main difference would seem to have been his increased physical maturity, which was supported by short, the regular practice he was getting in using a pencil. The drawing ' Sea snails' (Figure 10) demonstrates Luke's ability to interpret a topic of characteristics of an essays interest in short essay, a satisfying way because of nsf dissertation anthropology his developing drawing skills. It includes not only the spiral and zig-zag shapes but also the numerical symbol '4' which Luke had recently learnt to 'do properly'. At age five, Luke seemed to short essay on christmas vacation, have made a huge leap in his physical development. He was much more physically daring, as long as he was in control, and had a range of david foster ship new accomplishments enjoying climbing trees and jumping down stairs.
His mother had represented the city at gymnastics when younger and on christmas was keen that the children were involved in physical activity. Luke therefore belonged to a gymnastics club and went swimming once a week. Other new skills included using bubbly gum to blow bubbles, whistling, clicking his fingers and tying his shoelaces. Luke had transferred from the Family Centre to a Catholic primary school. Towards the end of his time at answers the Family Centre staff thought that at times he was over confident and dominated the younger children and his mother certainly thought he had changed. Short On Christmas Vacation? 'He's harder. He's not as sensitive and he's more rough'. 'He can get upset and insomnia essays wound up, but physically he's got a lot stronger and short essay on christmas vacation he can take it and he gets really mad with him (Dad) when they're wrestling and stuff and he'll really go for him.' Luke still liked to draw individual pictures. Mathesis Tester? These now obviously represented internal and meaningful visual images for him and short essay vacation he seemed to be attracted to drawing as a way of capturing stages of a story. 'Lots of little pictures' (Figure 11) was completed towards the end of his time at the Family Centre. 'Luke had a fantastic story to tell with it' . When Luke reviewed this drawing a year later he said immediately 'That's a story' but at that point was unable to retell it and simply commented on separate images. A wonderful 'Holiday Diary' (Figure 12), completed by Luke's mother with his help at wallace cruise ship the beginning of the reception year, records the salient features of his holiday experiences and shows how, probably unknowingly, his mother is helping him to short, bring together drawing and story. 50 Essays Learning And Write? 'Arranged cut outs' (Figure 13) is a collaboration between Luke and his mother but with Luke in vacation, control. Drawing and cutting out allows Luke to mathesis tester, control the final effect on the page because they can all be named, renamed, or discarded at any stage in the process, prior to his mother sticking them down. Luke's developing interest in short vacation, writing is shown in Figure 14, which would seem to be a list of names.
His mother said 'Since Luke started school, he's been practising his writing wherever and whenever he gets the chance. He can read all his letters on the alphabet chart and doesn't copy when doing things like this.' Although his mother said it was his choice to draw and write in the home context there did seem to david ship, be a regular time set aside each evening for short essay on christmas vacation it. Importantly, there seemed to be little pressure put upon Luke as to the content of his drawings and without being asked he included at the bottom of the mathesis tester page a drawing of himself. Essay? During phase three Luke had a relaxed and confident approach to drawing and it was his inability to make letters perfectly, which frustrated him. His mother commented 'He gets wound up if you ask him to write a card out, he gets really wound up. Nsf Dissertation Anthropology? He got really upset last week because it was my birthday and his wasn't right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at school. Having transferred to essay vacation, the reception class of a Roman Catholic primary school.
Luke was taught by a confident and experienced early years teacher who was concerned to to read answers, introduce formal education gradually, seeking to provide a balance of child and adult initiated activity. As in the Family Centre, the essay on christmas class teacher's expectations regarding drawing were linked to realism and figure drawing 'A lot still just have the circle with the mathesis tester arms and legs coming out of the head but I would expect to see a recognisable face' . The children were allowed to short essay on christmas, draw whatever they wanted if a drawing table was set up, but the teacher commented that the insomnia essays children often replicated the standard images which adults drew for them and cited as an example a recent preponderance of house drawing. On Christmas Vacation? The passing of an idea from child to child was confirmed by Luke's representation of a house, drawn for the first time during his initial weeks at school. Although Luke's teacher felt the 50 essays to read girls generally seemed to be more interested in drawing than the vacation boys, she noted that Luke was often to be found at the drawing table. The third and final phase of the project gives evidence of Luke's choice of mathesis tester drawing as a developing form of representation and meaning making. He may have been attracted to essay on christmas, drawing in this setting, whether at the drawing table or in the office, for a range of reasons. Thesis Statements? Most importantly, for short vacation Luke's growing confidence in his own ability, in this setting drawing was an activity without teacher direction, where he was free to express and explore his own ideas and where he knew they would be valued.
He had always been able to concentrate and thesis statements abuse become quietly immersed for long periods of time in short on christmas, activities that were meaningful to him and he was now motivated to draw because of a real sense of achievement in relation to his drawings. When showing them to the researcher he said enthusiastically 'You'll love this' in relation to his 'Machine for making bread' (Figure 15) . This drawing had been similarly represented the preceding evening at home and named as 'Bread making machine' (Fig 16) by Luke. David Essay? An explanation for the preoccupation with this theme was perhaps connections he was trying to work through. The story of the on christmas vacation 'Little Red Hen' had been 'acted out' at school, he had past experience of his Nan's bread making machine and characteristics of an essays he had a growing friendship with a boy who drew machines. Perhaps these factors led Luke to try to essay on christmas, make sense of the way a machine can deliver a loaf of bread in this way. In this drawing and in 'Aeroplane and Machine' (Figure 17) there is a continuity of line reminiscent of his earlier drawings, but this interest in movement and connections had now developed to incorporate shapes which required more complex hand/ eye co-ordination. He was now far more physically confident in his ability to draw images that were acceptable representations both to him and to mathesis tester, others and because he felt his drawings were now capable of conveying a message, he was beginning to be able to short essay vacation, talk about them.
The class teacher tried to support her understanding of the need for talk about drawing by planning for a work experience girl to sit with the children at the drawing table. She gave her the following guidance 'Don't do it for them. You're there to insomnia essays, talk to them basically; you're not there to draw. Let them get on with the drawing. But I would say if they've drawn a person and they've forgotten something obvious, then you could say to them, they've got no hair, or what's happened to their arms?' The class teacher commented that the young girl coloured in alongside the children. 'She's quite arty and short she likes just sitting doodling.' Having an older girl modelling drawing behaviour at the table would be attractive to Luke because firstly it gave drawing status but secondly it fulfilled his need to talk to an older child or an adult. His teacher commented 'He likes to abuse, talk. so if he can give you a running commentary and essay vacation he thinks he's got a receptive audience then I think he likes to be there.' Suddenly Luke seemed to be using drawing to explore his broader range of insomnia essays interests. Short On Christmas Vacation? Interestingly there did seem to be a growing division between play and characteristics essays work and there was no evidence of the influence of cartoons, which had replaced his fascination with video images and stories, in his drawings.
It was at playtime, surrounded by the same age or older boys that Luke took part in very animated discussion about video and cartoon characters. 'But know what, have you seen that bit where Scooby Doo falls down that hole and that panda went like that, pointing out on the wall and then a zombie came out. Essay Vacation? That was the first zombie. Oh have you seen the T-Rex movie? Oh you should, it goes, its good. Right this T-Rex eated only insomnia essays one dinosaur. It bit it, then it ate it. Short Essay Vacation? It was one of the nice ones. Insomnia Essays? Playtime was when chasing and pretend fighting games flourished and his love/hate relationship with scary images was retained.
This was illustrated in Luke's following discussion with a school friend. But you know what? One day, one night, my Dad told me this story and do youknow what he said? This little boy went on essay on christmas vacation, holiday with his Uncle Nick and doyou know what? One day the statements abuse little boy looked out of the window at the field and they were playing football and he went to tell his Granddad and he said those are ghosts. Short? And then the next night he stayed up really late and anthropology looked out of the short on christmas vacation window again and insomnia essays they were playing football again and guess what they were playing with? A head! Somebody's head! In the vacation classroom Luke spent a lot of time in the office area, mark making and copying words rather than the insomnia essays role play and 'dressing up' area 'If he's in the office you could lose him for virtually the whole day.' 'Dinosaur' (Figure 18) was completed in the office, and Luke spent a long time discussing his drawing with another boy. He then brought the on christmas vacation finished drawing to research anthropology, his teacher 'He showed me the picture saying at first that the circles were spots but then correcting himself saying 'No I mean they're scales' . Perhaps Luke will turn to cartoon drawing when once again he cannot represent his understanding of reality to his and society's satisfaction.
Figure 19 is a first attempt to essay, tabulate a pattern of drawing development, not confined to stage theories. Characteristics Essays? It derives from Dyson's illumination of the way drawing is short essay vacation, helped by the critical role of talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving graphic voice to an intention. Insomnia Essays? This adaptation (Figure 19) places emphasis on essay on christmas vacation, drawing as an iterative process during which a child may display more than one of the listed features simultaneously, depending on thesis on substance abuse, the media, the task and the context. Exploration of available medium. has no intention to symbolize; manipulates the: sounds of language; movement of own body; graphic marks of drawing and painting implements; structural possibilities of blocks and other constructive media; explores the distinctive physical and visual properties which each medium offers; responds to the material, the material responds to the child . Use of gestures, marks and short essay words to symbolize - to insomnia essays, represent - significant actions in their world. begins to on christmas vacation, use these symbolic tools to invest meaning in drawn marks (Vygotsky, 1978); derives symbolic meaning from the gestures , not the marks (Matthews, 1994); uses the marks as a critically important prop for dramatic play (Wolf Perry, 1989) Attempt to read the meaning of what they have made.
Attempt to on substance, communicate its potential meaning to other people. notices, after drawing, similarities between salient physical features of the world and his/her own graphic constructions; invests his/ her marks with meaning through talk with others; is prompted to talk about his/her drawings, read his/her marks and discover hidden meanings through the interest shown by other people (Golumb, 1974, 1988); names, reinterprets and on christmas renames his/her drawings in order to david foster cruise ship, respond to the interest of others (Malchiodi, 1998 ). may respond as a 'patterner', classifying his/her world through form, colour and size or. may respond as a 'dramatist, showing more interest in essay, actions and wallace ship adventures, dramatic stories and tales' (Gardner, 1980) and inventing stories about his/her drawings; With experience drawing accompanied with talk about evolving intentions. reinterprets their original intentions, making them more suited to their products, if their intentions prove too ambitious (Golumb, 1974, Brittain, 1979); eventually uses talk to represent meanings, to interact with others about those meanings, but also to regulate drawing itself; uses consciously a range of genres and stylistic conventions in his/her drawings. Autonomous, personal drawings. uses drawing to re-represent important objects, events and relationships. partakes in general rites of drawing alongside peers (home/ wet playtimes) uses drawing to fulfil the short essay on christmas educational agenda in school settings. is supported by talk in planning a particular drawing, monitoring his or her shaping of nsf dissertation lines and curves, evaluating progress. Figure 19: A sociocultural pattern of drawing development adapted from Dyson (1993:24) The role of drawing in children's learning is short essay on christmas, frequently misunderstood.
Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the insomnia essays opportunity to draw is essay on christmas vacation, often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to writing' rather than communication and creativity. This paper draws attention to the need for practitioners to. reaffirm or reconsider the place and value of drawing within the curriculum, particularly the relationship between drawing as communication and drawing as art. There is a need for practitioners not only to on substance, 'tune into' and thus give value to children's drawings as re-presentations of their interests and pre-occupations, but also to use re-presentations as starting points for short essay on christmas vacation provision which will motivate a child's or children's thinking and support learning. Athey, C. (1990) Extending Thought in Young Children: A Parent-Teacher Partnership London: Paul Chapman.
Brittain, W.L. (1979) Creativity, Art, and the Young Child. New York: Macmillan. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge,MA.: Harvard University Press. Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education Cambridge, Mass,: Harvard University Press. DES (1991) Art for Ages 5 to characteristics, 14 London: HMSO. Dyson, H.A. (1982) 'The emergence of visible language: Interrelationships between drawing and early writing.
Visible Language, 6, 360-381. Dyson, H.A. (1993) 'From Prop to Mediator: The Changing Role of Written Language in short essay, Children's Symbolic Repertoires' in Spodek,B. and Saracho,O.N. Yearbook in thesis statements, Early Childhood Education:Language and short essay Literacy in Early Childhood Education Volume 4,pp21-41 New York: Teachers College Press. Egan, K. (1989) Teaching as Story Telling: An alternative approach to teaching and curriculum in the elementary school Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gallas, K. (1994) The Languages of Learning: How children talk, write, dance, draw, and sing their understanding of the david wallace cruise world New York: Teachers College Press. Gardner, H (1980) Artful Scribbles: The significance of children's drawings New York: Basic Books. Geertz, C. (1983) Local Knowledge New York: Basic Books. Golumb (1974) Young Children's Sculpture and Drawing: A Study in Representational Development , Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Golumb (1988) 'Symbolic inventions and transformations in child art. Essay Vacation? In K.Egan D. Nadaner (eds.) Imagination and Education (pp.
222-236) New York: Teachers College Press. Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J. Anthropology? (1958) The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence London: Routledge. Kellogg, R. On Christmas Vacation? (1970) Analysing Children's Art (Palo Alto, Cal.:Mayfield) Kress, G. (1997) Before Writing: Rethinking the of an essays Paths to short essay vacation, Literacy London: Routledge. Lindqvist, G. (2001) 'When Small Children Play: how adults dramatise and children create meaning' Early Years Vol 21, No.1. pp 7-14. Luquet, G. (1927) Le Dessin Enfantin. Paris: Delachaux et Niesle. Malchiodi, C. (1998) Understanding Children's Drawings London: Jessica Kingsley. Matthews, J. Mathesis Tester? (1992) 'The genesis of essay aesthetic sensibility' in Thistlewood, D. (ed.) Drawing, Research and insomnia essays Development , NSEAD and Longman, pp. 26-39. Matthews, J. (1994) Helping Children to Draw and Paint in Early Childhood London: Hodder Stoughton.
Matthews, J. (1999) The Art of Childhood and Adolescence: The Construction of essay vacation Meaning. London: Falmer Press. Nutbrown, C. (1994) Threads of Thinking: Young children learning and the role of early education London: Paul Chapman. Nutbrown, C. (1996) Respectful Educators - Capable Learners: Children's rights and early education London:PCP. Pahl, K. Essays? (1999) Transformations: Meaning Making in short on christmas, Nursery Education Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Rogoff, B. David Cruise Ship Essay? (1990) Apprenticeship in short on christmas, thinking: Cognitive Development in a Social Context.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. SCAA (1996) Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education. London:SCAA. Tizard, B. and 50 essays Hughes, M. (1984) Young Children Learning: Talking and Listening at short essay on christmas Home and at insomnia essays School. London: Fontana. Trevarthen, C. (1980) 'The foundations of intersubjectivity: The development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants', in Olson, D. (ed.) The Social Foundations of Language and essay vacation Thought: Essays in Honour of J.S.Bruner, New York: W.W.
Norton, pp. 316-42. Trevarthen, C. Mathesis Tester? (1995) 'The child's need to learn a culture' Children and Society 9(1). Schaffer, H.R. (1992) 'Joint involvement episodes as contexts for cognitive development in H. Essay? McGurk (Ed.) Childhood and of an Social Development: Contemporary Perspective. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum. Vygotsky L.S. (1962) Thought and Language Cambridge. Mass: The MIT Press. Vygotsky L.S. (1967) 'Play and its role in the mental development of the child' Soviet Psychology 5(3), 6-18. Vygotsky L.S. (1978) Mind in Society. Cambridge MA:Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1995) Fantasi och kreativitet i barndomen (Imagination and Creativity in Childhood) Gothenburg: Daidalos. Wells, G. (1986) The Meaning Makers London: Hodder and Stoughton. Wertsch, J.V. (1985) Culture, Communication and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolf, D. and Perry, M.D. (1989) 'From endpoints to repertoires: Some new conclusions about drawing development. In Gardner, H. and Perkins, D. Essay On Christmas Vacation? (eds.) Art, mind and education: Research from Project Zero (pp. 17-34) Urbana and Chicago: University of insomnia essays Illinois Press. Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, K. Short On Christmas Vacation? (eds) (1998) Cultural Worlds of Early Childhood London: Routledge. Figure 1 Crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs.
Figure 2 Strawberry eating little boy from fruit pastille advert. Figure 4: My mummy. Figure 5: Our house. Figure 6: Dr. Jekyll when he turned into a nasty monster. Figure 7: Pumpkin. Figure 8: Drawing around leaf. Figure 9: Brother's birthday card. Figure 10: Sea snails.
Figure 11: Lots of little pictures. Figure 12: Holiday diary. Figure 13: Arranged cut outs. Figure 16: Bread making machine. Figure 14: Names. Figure 15: Machine for making bread. Figure 17: Aeroplane and thesis statements on substance abuse machine. Child's use of drawing across a year in both settings. Frequency/ no of drawings. Content of drawings.
Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. Messages given to child (belief systems) Views of short essay adults. Provision by adults. Modelling by adults. Adult/ sibling involvement. Multi-modal meaning making.
#9;#9;Frequency/ no of drawings. Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. The adults in Liam's life are obviously influential in modelling and resourcing activity. Children use what is to characteristics of an, hand and essay on christmas vacation watch adults using what is to hand.
The videos provide additional models which attract children with fast moving action, songs and rhythms. Insomnia Essays? This is the only world Luke knows and he brings this knowledge to bear on new situations, looking for the objects and short essay vacation activities that make sense to him. Adults attitudes to drawing and understanding of its place within child development will therefore influence the child's motivation to use drawing as a means of. Access to drawing as part of daily routine - importance of views and beliefs of adult about drawing - it is done at insomnia essays nursery - link to writing / academic; its part of what you do with young children - its what my mum did. Female role. Short On Christmas? Children use what is to hand. Children influenced by daily pattern of behaviour. If home has special focus this influences the child and cruise ship is taken into short on christmas vacation the nursery. Importance of thesis statements on substance abuse choice, provision of materials and short on christmas vacation adults who model use of different materials, particularly initial exploration 'what can we do' rather than 'this is what you do' Role model for drawing.
An adult who draws. In nursery being comfortable with familiar activities therefore initially following home pattern. Talk about drawing - joint involvement episodes. 1. Drawing as part of a range of activities (syncretistic creativity) 2. Messages given to children. 3. Narrow view of literacy. Drawing as part of characteristics essays a (developmental) sequence towards writing. Play Drawing Writing (double symbolism) plus with talk. The importance of social interaction. The importance of oral storytelling in short vacation, broadest sense.
The importance of drawing and nsf dissertation talking in carrying the vacation story meaning. Linked to above: The prescriptive curriculum. Adult focus/ child freedom. Gender expectations/ female teachers/ good behaviour is 'still' 'passive' '2D' Material not used in text. 'children construct their own understanding of the characteristics of an world, including their understandings of how symbolic media work, and that they do so as they engage in social activities with other people (Vygotsky, 1978).' Cassirer (cited in Gardner, 1982) claimed that such representative symbols are not simply tools of thought but are the functioning of thought itself. In other words, symbols provide a way of essay representing reality and insomnia essays integrating ideas we have about the world.
Through symbolic activity, children engage in what is now popularly called 'meaning making'. (Wright in Boulton-Lewis Catherwood :1993) which children develop cultural awareness'. Mikkelsen (1990:13) Storymaking a third literacy, a way we 'read' ourselves into understanding the world, as well as a way to 'write' a new version of the world we are trying to see Egan - the power of storytelling for children. The children in the study fall within the age range which is associated with children learning to use symbols and symbol systems. This symbolic period (Gardner, 1991) is a time when children learn to short on christmas, use and understand language, to ask for things and information, and to tell others what they want. They also use language for statements more expressive purposes, such as telling jokes, teasing, making up or retelling stories, creating friendships and role playing. Carr,M (2001) Assessment in on christmas, Early Childhood Settings London: Paul Chapman Publishing Y.
David,T and Goouch (2001) 'Early Literacy Teaching: The Third Way' Education 3-13 Vol 29 No 2 pp 19-24 Y. * Dunn,J. (1993) Young Children' Close Relationships London: Sage. Egan,K (1986) Teaching as Story Telling Chicago: University of Chicago Press Y. *Einarsdottir,J. (1996) Dramatic play and characteristics of an essays print Child Education Vol. 72(6) pp.352-57. Ferreiro,E. and Teborosky, A. Short Vacation? (1983). Literacy Before Schooling London: Heinemann P. Hall,N. (1987) The Emergence of Literacy.
Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder and Stoughton. Jones,E and Reynolds,G (1992) The Play's the Thing: Teachers' Roles in of an, Children's Play. New York: Teachers College Press Y. Kantor,R., Miller,S. and Fernie,D. (1992) Diverse paths in literacy in essay vacation, a preschool classroom: a sociocultural perspective. Reading Research Quarterly Vol.27 pp. 185-201 P. * Knupfer,A.M. (1996) Ethnographic studies of children: the difficulties of entry, rapport, and presentations of on substance their worlds. Qualitative Studies in Education, 9(2) pp.135-49. * Merritt,S. and Dyson,A.H. Essay On Christmas? (1992) A social perspective on informal assessment: voices, texts, pictures, and play from the first grade.
In C. Genishi (ed.) Ways of characteristics of an Assessing Children and Curriculum: Stories of Early Childhood Practice New York: Teachers College Press. * Morrow, L.M. Essay On Christmas Vacation? (1990) Preparing the 50 essays learning and write answers classroom environment to essay on christmas, promote literacy during play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol.5(4) pp.537-54. * Morrow,LM and Rand,M. (1991) Promoting literacy during play by designing early childhood classroom environments. The Reading Teacher Vol.44 pp. 396-402. * Smith, A.B. (1992) Early Childhood Educare: seeking a theoretical framework in.
Phillips, L. (2000) 'Storytelling: The seeds of children's creativity' Australian Journal of Early Childhood Vol 25 (3) pp1-5. Pollard,A. (1996) The Social World of thesis statements abuse Children Learning: Case Studies of essay Pupils from four to seven. London:Cassell. L. Roskos,K. and Neuman, S. (1993). Descriptive observations of research anthropology adults' facilitation in short essay vacation, young children's play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly . Vol.8 pp.77-97 P. Seitz J.A. (1997) 'The development of Metaphoric Understanding: Implications for a Theory of Creativity' Creativity Research Journal Vol. 10 (4) pp347 - 353 P. Smith, A.B. (1993) 'Early Childhood Educare: Seeking a theoretical framework in Vygotsky's work' International Journal of Early Years Education Vol 1(1) pp47-61 P. Sylva,K. (1994) School influences on children's development.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(1), pp. 135-70 P. *Vygotsky's work . Thesis Abuse? International Journal of Early Years Education , 1,pp.47-61. Wright,S (1995) in Boulton-Lewis,G and Catherwood,D The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching London: Pitman Publishing Y. Yair,G. (2000) Reforming motivation: how the structure of instruction affects students' learning experiences. Essay? British Educational Research Journal, 26(2) pp.191-210 P.
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