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The Master Thesis. Chapter 8 - The analysis


All the phases that a student faces during the master thesis. Based on a true story. analysing the results of the research has a huge

Dissertation findings and discussion sections | Oxbridge Essays

Master thesis results chapter

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Dissertation findings and discussion sections | Oxbridge Essays

Vanguard Investments Group, Malvern, PA. Tools Used : Jenkins/Hudson, Ant, MS Build, TFS Team Explorer, and Subversion, Jenkins, Travis CI. CM Solution Architect for Healthcare Emerging Products. Tools Used : Jenkins, Puupet, Chef, Capastrino, Ruby, Maven, Git, Java. Conducted multiple CM assessments including “As-Is” and master “To-Be” with recommendations to improve Healthcare CM and release management practices. Consulted on tools evaluation, selection and schreiben implementation including HP EDGE mandated and open source ALM tool chains. Consulted on the appropriate use of industry standards and frameworks (e.g. CMMI/EDGE).

Developed Healthcare Product Release and Configuration plan and managed CM team responsible for thesis, build automation (development and maintenance), code promotion through environments, and schreiben production packaging and installation support for master results, customers. The configuration management tools utilized were HP CMDB, HP Service manager, Quality Center, Subversion, Team Foundation Server, Ant, Electric Commander, Jenkins, Nexus, Ivy and persuasive essay InstallAnywhere, InstallShield. Configuration Manager for CM processes, standards, builds and environments for the various Healthcare applications and Products. Directed setup, use, and build scheduling for thesis, environments and implemented a Continuous Delivery pipeline. Designed and schreiben englisch beispiel implemented CM requirements, approach, and tooling for Java (J2EE) and thesis results chapter .NET -based application development. Designed, coded, and implemented automated build scripting in Ant, Ivy, Jenkins/Hudson, and Maven. Defined development workflow Agile/SCRUM/Waterfall SDLC processes and established processes around them and implemented toolset integration for CaliberRM, Quality Center, Subversion, and various scripting tools and databases. Defined package process and tools, including the design of a CMDB for full requirements traceability. Led team of CM build specialists, tool integrators, environment coordinators and on crime packagers and defined and thesis chapter assisted with Data Management (and Testing data baseline) CM strategies.

Managed Healthcare product packaging for essay, release to customers utilizing InstallShield and InstallAnywhere. Tools Used : Jenkins, Puupet, Chef, Capastrino, Ruby, Maven, Git, Java. 2005 2009, Configuration/Release manager. As CM manager responsible for building and running continuous integration environments that support multiple development teams working toward towards common builds and thesis chapter Major Responsibilities included. Designing and six traits essay implementing a continuous development and deployment process that is uniform throughout several development teams and across projects. Implemented Continuous Integration validation tests on code check-in. Design and implement, working with QA automation team, post check-in automated unit and system tests and master thesis Established and documented workflow.

Trained development, QA and production deployment teams. Managed tools like Subversion, Jenkins, JIRA and Performed maintenance and troubleshooting of build/deployment systems. Essay Gangs! Plan, coordinate and execute releases to QA, stage and production environments and Managed complex code branches from multiple development teams for master thesis chapter, current and future releases. Merged code and ensure successful builds with intended functionality. Ensured releases are documented for berlin, supportability and functionality and stakeholders spanning multiple organizations are notified in advance. Responsible for configuration management including deployment of new software/configuration changes into our UAT, Training, Production and DR environments.

Additional duties included working with development and infrastructure teams to improve the configuration and results chapter release management processes and environments for more efficient, higher quality software deployments. Essay With! Aspen Software Consultants, Dallas, TX. CM Administrator at IRS, Dallas, TX : Participated and Lead on results chapter software configuration management boards and provided support for the release process form the different Vendors. Involved in Building and deploying software releases, Building and compiling code of varying complexity using automated and manual efforts to ensure complete and accurate code compilation for release into various critical environments. Coordinated individual and Master Release Schedule(s), Administered and maintained version control, version control software, code repository and backup files. Implemented ClearCase/ClearQuest and Requisite Pro, Build Forge, ClearCase UCM configuration and change management tool. Configuration Analyst at Capital One, Plano TX : Responsible for Rational development tools support over multiple environments consisting of ClearCase, ClearCase Multisite ClearQuest.

Ongoing project support for clients, Upgrades for existing rational tool set including ClearQuest Schema upgrades and ClearCase VOB schema upgrades. Application! ClearQuest integrated with ClearCase for change/defect management and tracking tasks with an master chapter Oracle back-end for essay, CQ schemas. Recommended security policies and created triggers using PERL scripts, which were applied to VOB’s. Configuration Analyst at results chapter Verizon, Irving, TX : Installation and customization of the rational suite, Set-up of the Requisite Pro environment and administration. Integration between ClearQuest and Test director, ClearCase UCM configuration and change management tool. Creation and Maintenance of VOBs, Views, Triggers and Installation Release Areas and Maintenance of Developers streams, Provision of day-to-day user support and Creation of Perl triggers for persuasive essay, development VOB’s. 1998- 2002, Configration Management manager.

Developed plan and organizational processes to improve configuration management within the enterprise to results, include the establishment of a change control board (CCB). Contributed to the attainment of CMM Level 2 and 3 Certifications working closely with software quality assurance group. Conducted extensive configuration management training and Developed CM policies and procedures including the CM plan and handbook in support of applications. As a Software Configuration Management (SCM) Specialist Team Foundation Server (TFS) Administrator served a critical function within the software development organization. This role was responsible for managing and supporting the software development lifecycle to include processes, tools, and automation efforts. As a Senior SCM Specialist/TFS Administrator reported to the Program Manager and essay with worked closely with Development and Deployment teams providing configuration and results chapter release management support, technical expertise and essay on shopping administration of TFS and other related software development lifecycle tools. Introduction to CMMI, Carnegie Mellon Univeristy**. M.E (Elect Engg), Andhra University, India B.E (Elect Engg) Andhra University, India.

Talks/Presentations/Publications/Projects. Some of my Talks and Presentations * My Presentations. Copyright 2014 - Balaji Vajjala - Powered by Octopress | Themed with Whitespace.

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metal powder thesis 1 ICTM-Department of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade. Njegoseva 12, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. 2 Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade. Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. A powder is defined as a finely divided solid, smaller than 1000 µm in its maximum dimension. A particle is defined as the thesis results smallest unit of a powder. The particles of rates many metal powders are 25 to results, 200 µm in size. In most cases, the powders will be metallic, although in many instances they are combined with other phases such as ceramics or polymers. Powders exhibit behavior that is intermediate between that of a solid and a liquid.

Powders will flow under gravity to fill containers or die cavities, so in this sense they behave like liquids. They are compressible like a gas. But the compression of a metal powder is essentially irreversible, like the plastic deformation of a metal. Thus, a metal powder is easily shaped, with the desirable behavior of a solid after processing. Powder metallurgy is the study of the processing of metal powders, including the fabrication, characterization, and conversion of metal powders into useful engineering components. The three main steps in the scheme of powder metallurgy are illustrated in Figure 1. First is the essay general area labeled “powder technology,” which is thesis results concerned with the nature of powders. Essay Beispiel. Emphasis is given to the fabrication, classification (according to particle size), safety, packing, and thesis, handling of powders.

Secondary concerns are with the sampling, packaging, and isaiah berlin, transportation. Master Chapter. Examination of six traits of writing essay a powder for size and shape are common and important activities in the field of thesis chapter powder technology. Traditional powder consolidation activities include compaction and sintering (a thermal process that increases the strength of a powder mass by bonding adjacent particles via diffusion or related atomic level events). The concerns at this stage are with the formation and densification of the powders. Finally, the conceptual flow turns to an emphasis on the final properties, with concomitant attention to product microstructure. The various scientific and technological aspects of of writing essay powder metallurgy were recently given by R.M. German (1994). The applications of metal powders are quite extensive.

In addition to their use in powder metallurgy (resulting in products such as: dental restorations, oil-less bearings, automotive transmission gears, armor piercing projectiles, electrical contacts, nuclear power fuel elements, orthopedic implants, business machine parts, high-temperature filters, aircraft brake pads, etc.), they are used in such products as paint pigments, explosives, rocket fuels, printing inks, catalysts, and many others. Thanks to a rapid increase in the significance of powder metallurgy, metal powders are being produced in large quantities nowadays. The total world production of iron and copper powder for the years of 1998-2004 is illustrated in Figure 2a (ferrous being approximately 93% of the total), and the European powder metal shipments for powder metallurgy applications is shown in Figure 2b. There are many industrial and consumer materials that are available as powders. Results. They include minerals, cereals (grains and medical application essay tips, flour), coffee, and metal powders. Master Thesis Results. On a tonnage basis, metal powders are a relatively small activity when compared to common powders such as sand and cereal.

The worldwide consumption of metal powders amounts to approximately one million metric tons/year. Essay Rates. The most commonly used metal powders are iron and steel, followed by aluminum, copper, nickel, tungsten, etc. Depending on the final product, initial powders have to satisfy different requirements. These include physical (size and particle-size distribution, state of the surface), chemical (basic metal and thesis chapter, admixture content, chemically bound, adsorbed or dissolved gas contaminants), and technological properties (apparent density, flowability, stability, compressibility, corrosion resistance, etc.). At the same time, the schreiben beispiel physical, chemical, and technological properties of metal powders strongly depend on the method of powder fabrication. For example, different powders, which have the same chemical composition but different physical characteristics or other technological properties, will require different production conditions. Master. On the other hand, the favored production method is determined also by economical aspects, that is, by the price of the powder, the price of the treatment alteration, the quantity of ingredients, and the possibility of obtaining the powder with all necessary physical, electrical, and magnetic characteristics. Considering all these requirements, it is necessary to a have large number of different methods for the production of metal powders, including powders of alloys and compounds. Nowadays many methods have found broad application in industry (mechanical, chemical, electrolytic fabrication techniques, etc.), and some are found in the laboratory and the pilot-plant.

From scientific and commercial aspects, there is an enormous interest in amorphous and nanocrystalline of powders. Of Writing Essay. They are usually smaller than micrometer in thesis chapter, size, and are used for rates, production of sintering materials, and for other purposes such as magnetic memories or catalysts. Among the various processes many are chemical methods, such as: gas atomization, plasma spraying, centrifugal atomization, and results chapter, vapor phase condensation. In contrast with mechanical fabrication techniques these processes enable not only the production of metal powders with controlled particle grain size, but with tailored properties of the powder that are of essay on crime rates vital importance for thesis, its final application. Almost any material can be made into medical school application, powder, but the method selected for fabrication of the powder depends on specific material properties. Master Thesis Results Chapter. The four main categories of fabrication are based on (1) mechanical comminution, (2) chemical reactions, (3) liquid metal atomization, and (4) electrolytic deposition. Englisch Beispiel. In addition to these major techniques, several specialty techniques are used for special materials. There are four fundamental mechanical comminution processes: impaction, attritioning, shearing, and compression. Impaction involves the rapid, instantaneous delivery of a blow to a material, causing cracks and resulting in size reduction. Attritioning is the master results reduction in particle size by essay rates, a rubbing motion.

Shearing forms a cleavage type fracture by cutting. Powders formed by shearing are coarse and not often found in powder metallurgy unless the material is extremely hard. Finally, compressive forces can break a material into master thesis results chapter, a coarse powder if it is sufficiently brittle. Impaction, attritioning, shearing, and compression are often combined to form a metal powder. There are several variants of the chemical fabrication techniques: powders are formed by decomposition of a solid by medical application essay, gas, by thermal decomposition, by precipitation from a liquid, by precipitation from a gas, and by solid-solid reactive synthesis. Atomization involves the formation of powder from molten metal using a spray of droplets. Thesis. It is attractive because of its applicability to several alloys and because of the ease of process control. There are several atomization processes: (i) gas atomization, (ii) water atomization, (iii) centrifugal atomization, and (iv) plasma atomization. On Crime Rates. In addition to the major atomization methods, several others can deliver energy to a melt.

Some examples are vibrating wires, high-speed rollers, spinning crucibles, and melt explosion atomizers. All metals that can be electrodeposited exhibit a tendency to appear in form of powders at current densities larger than a certain critical value. Master. A powder formed by essay on crime, the electrolytic technique is often dendritic or spongy in shape although considerable control of particle size and shape is possible. The specific properties of the powder depend on the electrolytic bath conditions during deposition and on the subsequent processing steps. Moreover, it should be noted that there is master thesis results chapter a possibility of essay on shopping my mother electrodeposition of metal powders with controlled grain size, morphology, and crystal structure of the particles by master thesis results, using electrodeposition at periodically changing rate. The electrolytic powder production method usually yields products of high purity, which can be well pressed and sintered. Besides, in recent years it has been shown that by different electrolysis regimes it is possible not only to obtain powders with a wide range of properties, but to predict the decisive characteristics of powders that are of persuasive essay vital importance for powder quality and for the final application. The processes of metal deposition can be categorized into master thesis, three main groups each of which has different requirements with respect to the physical state of the on shopping cathodic product.

In electroplating the crystal layer is required to master thesis results, be fine grained, smooth, strongly adhesive, and glassy, that is, to be easily polished. It is obtained mainly from solutions of complex salts. In electrorefining and electrowinning relatively coarse grained, rough, but adhesive deposits are required. They have to be of high purity and firm enough to endure handling before melting and casting into persuasive gangs, shapes suitable for further processing. They are obtained from solutions of simple salts.

In metal powder production by electrodeposition, a controlled product particle size is necessary and it is desirable that the product should not adhere, or adhere only weakly, to the cathode. Thesis Chapter. Generally, powder production requires other conditions than those in electrowinning and electrorefining. Powders are obtained from rates qualitatively the same, but less concentrated, solutions as used in electrowinning and are produced at higher current densities. The very earliest uses of metal powders have been traced to several parts of the world. For example, gold powder was fired onto jewelry by the Incas, and the Egyptian uses of iron powder date back to 3000 BC. During the 1800's, the use of powder metallurgy techniques began in master results chapter, earnest. Black silver powder was obtained using electrolysis as early as 1803 and was repeated few years later. Smee recognized, as early 1842, the main features of the dependence of crystallite size on current density and concentration and he described the conditions under which black metals are formed, whose dark color he correctly explained as being caused by the very small size of the deposited particles. The conditions of formation and the properties of school application essay tips electrolytic black silver powder were studied in detail already in the nineteenth century, and the growth of the results highly dispersed deposits of silver and copper were followed under the microscope. In an school secondary application, extended study of the electrodeposition of copper, the current densities above which copper is deposited in powder form were determined in 1886. Besides copper and silver, the master results nature and the causes of formation of zinc sponge have drawn the attention of on shopping my mother various early investigators.

One process by which iron powder (mainly for chapter, magnets) was manufactured around 1920 was described in details. Further older work on the formation of powders, flakes, etc., of various metals (lead-sponge, tungsten, platinum, etc.) is reported in a period up to 1925. Before 1910, many papers dealt in six traits, detail with the formation of electrolytic metal powders and sponges; however, this problem was rarely considered for its own sake between 1910 and 1935. After 1935, interest in the subject was strongly revived, owing to the rapid development of powder metallurgy. The theory of powder deposition started to develop much later, in the 1950's. Electrodeposition of metal powders evolved from an art to a science by the chapter of thesis chapter Ibl (1962) and especially by the book of Calusaru (1979).

Calusaru reviewed all theoretical and medical school essay tips, practical knowledge up to 1979, and provided the basis for the scientific approach to the field. The essence of master thesis results it is the conclusion that for electrochemical production of metal powders the corresponding electrochemical processes must be under diffusion control. The properties of metal powders depend on the properties of the powder particles, which, in turn, depend on the conditions of electrodeposition. A methodology for persuasive gangs, modeling of powder particles, and hence properties of the powder, for master thesis results, electrodeposition at a periodically changing rate was introduced by medical school secondary application, Popov and Pavlovic (1993). It seems that by using this procedure, powders with predetermined properties can be electrodeposited. The development of this idea will probably be the future of electrochemical powder formation. Electrolytic fabrication techniques. It is possible to successfully produce powders of about 60 metals by electrolysis. The majority of the metals are obtained by molten-salt electrolysis and master thesis results, powders of six traits of writing essay about 20 metals can be electrodeposited from aqueous solutions. Master Thesis Chapter. However, while a larger number of metals can be obtained in powder form by molten-salt electrolysis, a much larger quantity of powders is produced by electrolysis from persuasive essay gangs aqueous solutions.

This is because the thesis results chapter most important powders (copper, iron, and nickel) are obtained from aqueous solutions. (a) Overpotential; 200 mV, deposition time: 6 hours; (b) Overpotential: 300 mV, deposition time: 5 hours; (c) Overpotential: 700 mV, deposition time: 2 min. Electrolytic metal powder occurs mainly as a dendritic electrodeposit, which can spontaneously fall off or can be removed from the electrode by essay schreiben englisch beispiel, tapping or by other similar ways. (Also, the powder has a tendency to form flakes or needles, fibrous or spongy forms, etc., depending on the electrodeposition process parameters and on the nature of the master results metal). In Figure 3, the polarization curve for copper electrodeposition is shown, as well as cross sections of electrodeposits obtained in secondary application tips, different overpotential ranges. Three ranges have been determined according to deposit structure: (a) compact metal, (b) rough deposit, and thesis chapter, (c) true powder. These results show clearly that a distinction has to be made between rough and powdery deposits. Essay Tips. Obviously, the powder deposit is formed only at the end of the thesis results polarization curve plateau, at overpotential/ current density values larger than the critical values, as illustrated by Figure 3. Electrolytic powder can also be obtained by essay gangs, electrodeposition at a periodically changing (pulsating) rate. This method is based on the periodic repetition of current or overpotential waves. Master Chapter. Deposition at a periodically changing rate offers a number of possibilities for changing the deposition conditions at the essentially same deposition rate. In this way, powder particles with different grain size and morphology can be obtained by varying the wave characteristics.

It seems in general, that the most pronounced effect can be achieved by the periodically changing regimes when the polarity of the school application tips current/voltage is reversed during the waves, resulting in an anodic dissolution of the deposit during parts of the master thesis results wave. There are two effects of six traits metal dissolution during anodic parts of current-overpotential waves on the morphology of metal powder particles. First, sharp points on electrode surface (characterized by low radii of curvature) dissolve faster than the dull points (characterized by large radii of thesis curvature). This way, branching of dendrites can be decreased and the formation of agglomerates prevented. This makes powder particles less dendritic and more compact. This is illustrated in Figure 7, indicating the transformation of the shape of dendritic powder particles of lead due to the selective dissolution during the anodic current flow (compare the left and right pictures in six traits of writing essay, Figure 7). Second, the metal adatoms on master thesis, the surface, which are not in stable positions, dissolve easier than atoms from the crystal lattice, permitting formation of ideal crystal planes on the powder particles. This is illustrated by Figure 8. Medical School Tips. The powder particles of silver obtained by pulsating and polarity-reversing techniques are almost small monocrystals (compare with deposits shown in Figure 4). Electrolysis conditions favoring diffusion control of electrodeposition enhance the formation of electrolytic metal powder. For example, decrease of metal salt concentration, increase of thesis results chapter concentration of indifferent electrolyte, decrease of stirring rate, increase of current density, decrease of temperature, and increase of persuasive gangs viscosity of solution are all factors favoring powder formation. Besides the above-mentioned factors, the structure of the deposit also depends on the individual nature of the metal and the salt species used in the electrolyte solution.

The process of electrolytic metal powder production consists of: powder electrolysis, washing and stabilizing, drying, classification (according to particle size), screening, blending, and packing. Typical properties of electrolytic powders, as influenced by the conditions of electrolysis, will be illustrated for electrolytic copper powder in the Appendix. When dealing with powders, the master chapter properties of both the essay individual particles and master thesis, the collective (bulk) properties of the powder must be considered. The properties of essay englisch beispiel single particles include size, shape, and microstructure, which can be determined by optical or scanning electron microscopic observations. For a bulk powder, characterization implies the determination of, at thesis results least, the following properties: Basic chemical composition (The minimum percentage of the base metal or percentages of main elements in case of metal alloy powders.) Impurities and essay, minor constituents (The percentage of impurities.) Particle size distribution (Determination of chosen particle fractions, that is, that portion which lies between two stated particle sizes or mesh sizes.

Square-mesh metal net sieving is the most frequently used method to size powder particles ranging larger than 5 µm. Very fine powders are measured through sedimentation in master, water or other appropriate liquids or with air ventilation or the on crime vacuum air-jet microsieve.) Specific surface (Powder specific surface is obtained adding together its granule surfaces contained in a mass unit and generally is expressed in cm 2 /g. The specific surface of metal powders is measured with permeameter-like devices, such as Lea and Nurse instrument, Blaine permeameter and the universally adopted Fischer Subsieve Sizer, and for very fine powders the master chapter gas adsorption method is adopted-BET method.) Apparent density (The weight per unit volume of a simply poured metal powder, which is always smaller than the density of the metal itself. It is measured letting the powder drop freely through a funnel to fill a 25 cm 3 cylindrical container. The ratio between mass and volume, that is, apparent density, is provided through leveling and weighing and is expressed in g/cm 3 . Essay On Crime. The apparent density depends on a series of factors, the more important of which are as follows: metal true density, powder shape and structure, particle size distribution, corrosion resistance, etc.) Flowability (It is the speed at which powder flows through openings due to gravity. To assess the speed, standardized funnels with varying calibrated openings are used. A certain amount of powder is poured in the funnel and the “flow time” is recorded.) All these properties of the electrodeposited metal powders are strongly, and in rather complicated manner, dependent on the conditions of master chapter electrolysis.

Some examples of the influence of electrolysis conditions are described in detail in the Appendix below. As mentioned above, the of writing apparent density, the flowability, and the specific surface are the most important properties of metal powders, but in practice the master results quality of the powder is mostly determined by the apparent density. The dependence of the apparent density on conditions of electrolysis is illustrated for isaiah, copper powder deposition by the following diagrams. All conditions were kept constant as shown below, with the exception of the master thesis value of the test variable. Electrolyte composition: 5 g/l copper ions and 160 g/l sulphuric acid; cathodic current density: 0.3 A/cm 2 ; electrolyte flow rate: 0.17 l/min; time of powder removal (deposition time after which the powder is removed by essay englisch beispiel, brush or by tapping): 60 min; temperature: (50±2) o C or (122±4) o F. The above diagrams are in agreement with previous discussions of the effect of master chapter electrolysis conditions on my mother, the metal powder formation.

In all cases the decrease of apparent density, hence the increase of dendritic character of powder particles, indicates the increase of diffusion control of the deposition process. It is necessary to note that the master above diagrams are valid only for process parameters indicated. A very small change of deposition conditions can considerably change the properties of the medical secondary essay tips powder. Obviously, the powder particles from the chapter same fractions of different powders occupy approximately the same volume, but with considerably different structure of metallic copper. Essay. It means that the results chapter more dendritic is the structure of on shopping powder particles the smaller is the apparent density of copper powder. It is possible to plot the results chapter dependence of essay with my mother apparent density on the specific surface copper powder as can be seen from Fig. 16. The larger is the specific surface the lower is the apparent density. This is also obvious from results Fig. 17.

The flowability of a metal powder depends on essay on crime rates, the interparticle friction, which is dominated by the surface area and surface roughness of the particles. As the surface area and surface roughness increase, the amount of friction in the powder mass increases and the powder exhibits less efficient flow. The same appears with the shape of particle. The more irregular the particles shape is, the less efficient is the powder flow. Resistance to flow is the thesis chapter main feature of friction, which decreases as the particles approach a smooth spherical shape.

The effect of particle size distribution on the powder flowability is berlin also important. Chapter. If the powder consists of particles with the same size, which are more or less in point contact with one another, making the contact surface as low as possible, even dendritic deposits can flow. Of Writing. If the powder consists of particles with different sizes, the interstitial voids of the larger particles can be filled by the smaller ones, the contact surface area increases, and the flow of the powder is master results chapter less efficient. As a result of essay beispiel this, a non-sieved powder often does not flow, while the fractions of the same powder flow. Hence, the best conditions for the free flow of the powder are fulfilled if the powder consists of particles with the same size, with spherical shape, and with a surface structure approaching the structure of a smooth metal surface. It can also be seen from chapter Figures 17 and 18 that the surface structure of the particles determines the flowability of the powder. From Figures 17(left) and 18(left) is obvious that the interweaving of particles is of writing not possible, hence the powder will flow. On the other hand, from Figure 17(right) and 18(right) can be seen that particles can interweave and the powder will not flow. The electrolytic metal powder is not formed of particles of identical size and morphology; the individual particles may assume various form and sizes, while the thesis results chapter powders as associations of such particles exhibit, more or less, the same characteristics if are deposited under the identical conditions. Typical particle-size distribution curves for copper powders obtained at two different current densities are shown in Figure 19.

It is observed from Figures 12 and 19 that the particle-size of dominant fraction decreases with increasing current density, and that particle-size distribution curve is sharper. The 149-177 µm fraction of powder obtained at 0.18 A/cm 2 , presented in Figures 17(left) and 18(left) exhibit excellent flowability while the non-sieved powder shown in essay schreiben, Figure 19 does not flow. This is because the smaller particles can abridge the larger particles and the flow of powder is prevented. Hence, the surface structure of a non-sieved powder with good flowability must be more compact and smooth than the surface structure shown in Figures 17(left) and 18(left), such a powder is illustrated by Figure 20. The critical apparent density for free flowing non-sieved copper powder is about 2.2-2.3 g/cm 3 . Other properties of bulk powders can also be correlated with the properties of powder particles in a similar way. Fig. 3: K.I. Master Results. Popov, M.G. Pavlovic, “Electrodeposition of metal powders with controlled particle grain size and morphology”, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 24, Edited by R.E. White, B.E.

Conway, and J.O'M. Bockris, Plenum Press, New York 1993, Chapter 6, p 312, Fig. 7. Reproduced with permission of Springer Science and Business Media. Fig. 4: E.R. Essay On Shopping. Stojilkovic, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Belgrade.

Fig. 5 (left): V.D. Jovic, V. Maksimovic, M.G. Pavlovic, and K.I. Popov, “Morphology, internal structure and growth mechanism of electrodeposited Ni and Co powders”, to be published in the Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry (DOI 10.1007/s10008-005-0687-1). Reproduced with permission of Springer Science and Business Media. Fig. 7: E.R. Stojilkovic, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Belgrade. Figs.

10-15: M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, N.D. Results Chapter. Nikolic, and K.I. Popov, “The effect of essay beispiel some parameters of electrolysis on apparent density of electrolytic copper powder in master results, galvanostatic deposition”, in Trends in Advanced Materials and Processes, (Proceedings), Materials Science Forum, Vol. 352 (2000) pp 65-72, Figs. 2 – 7. Edited by. D.P. Essay Rates. Uskokovic, G.A. Battiston, J.M. Master Results Chapter. Nedeljkovic, S.K.

Milonjic and D.I. Rakovic. Reproduced with permission of Trans. Tech. On Crime. Publications. Fig. Master Results. 16: K.I. Popov, P.M. Zivkovic, S.B. Krstic, “The apparent density as a function of the specific surface of essay gangs copper powder and the shape of the particle size distribution curve”, J. Serb.

Chem. Soc., Vol. 68 (2003) pp 903-907, Fig. Master. 1. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 17: K.I. Popov, M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R.

Ivanovic, S.B. Krstic, M.C. Obradovic, “The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. II. The experimental verification of the model of the representative powder particle”, J. Serb.

Chem. Isaiah Berlin. Soc., Vol. 68 (2003) pp 779-783, Figs. 2a and 2b. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 18: K.I. Thesis Results. Popov, M.G. Medical Secondary Application Tips. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R.

Ivanovic, S.B. Krstic, M.C. Obradovic, “The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. Master. II. The experimental verification of the essay schreiben englisch beispiel model of the representative powder particle”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., Vol.

68 (2003) pp 779-783, Figs. 3a and 5b. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 19: N. Ibl, “The Formation of Powdered Metal Deposits” in Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Edited by. P. Delahay and C.W. Tobias, Vol. 2, Interscience, New York, pp 50-142, 1962, Figure 1. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Fig. 20: K.I. Popov, S.B.

Krstic, M.C. Obradovic, M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R. Ivanovic, “The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. III.

A model of the surface of a representative particle of flowing copper powder electrodeposited by reversing current”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., Vol. Thesis. 69 (2004) pp 43-51, Fig. School Essay. 1c. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Powder Metallurgy Science (2 nd edition), R. Chapter. M. German, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, New Jersey, 1994.

Electrodeposition of Metal Powders with Controlled Particle Grain Size and Morphology, K. I. Popov and M. G. Pavlovic, in “Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry” Vol. 24, pp 299-391, R. E. White, B. E. Conway and J. O'M. Bockris (editors), Plenum Press, New York, 1993. Electrodeposition of Metal Powders, A. Calusaru, “Materials Science Monographs, Vol. 3, Elsevier, New York, 1979. The Formation of Powdered Metal Deposits, N. Ibl, in “Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering” Vol.

2, pp 50-142, P. Delahay and C. W. Tobias (editors), Interscience, New York, 1962.

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essay on conscience This A2 answer written by one of my students, Kate, successfully fulfils the assessment criteria for an A* at A2. Read my comments in red and find out how. Thesis? This seems to have provoked a creative deabte about whether enough AO2 content has been provided for an A*. Isaiah Berlin? An A* implies 90% or over, so 32/35 in total. Up to results, 14 marks can be awarded for of writing essay, AO 2 and 21 for master results chapter, AO1. I would award this essay 20 at six traits AO1 and thesis chapter, 12 at AO2. My justification for 12/14 AO2 marks would be the comments I have highlighted in blue. I think that the essay could be improved by producing contrasting views by scholars – Kate's evaluation is expressed not unreasonably as her opinion.

But she holds an impressive lne, I think, both analytically and medical secondary essay tips, evaluatively. Do join in the debate. PB. An assessment of whether conscience is the most reliable guide to ethical decision-making is, in my opinion, no need to state that it's your opinion determined by one's own interpretation of what conscience actually is. Master Chapter? There are three key approaches to defining conscience. The most recent, Freud isn't the most recent, for exmpale, see the articel on essay on crime, this site by David Torevell for thesis results chapter, some more recent tehories, such as Vincent Macnamara's originally proposed by persuasive essay, Freud and developed by Piaget and Fromm, argues that conscience is the result of thesis results, environmental factors. Essay Schreiben? Freud's definition of conscience is linked to an individual's feelings of guilt and fear of punishment.

As such, it could be seen as an unreliable guide to ethical decision-making as it may inspire actions simply to gain approval. An entirely different approach to conscience, existing within the Christian tradition, is to define conscience as an innate or intuitive sense. Thesis Chapter? This view has perpetuated from the early Christian writings of St Paul to Cardinal Newman's work at the end of the six traits of writing essay, 19th Century. Another important proponent of an intuitive conscience was Joseph Butler, who identified conscience as the ultimate moral decision maker. Placed within us by God, it must be obeyed. Results Chapter? Although directed towards increasing the my mother, happiness of others, it is conceivable that conscience could be misled or misinformed. Therefore, it is not necessarily a reliable guide. It was Aquinas who stated that there were two dimensions to master thesis results, moral decision making: synderesis, an awareness of the moral principle to do good and avoid evil, and essay, conscientia, the power of master thesis results, reason to work out what is good and evil.

This combination of innate sense and reason is, I believe, the gangs, most reliable guide to ethical decision-making, as it acknowledges that conscience deliberates between good and bad. Excellent opening paragraph is almost an master thesis chapter, essay in itself! However you successfully discuss the question set, so avoiding a mistake many candidates make, of medical secondary application essay, putting down as much as they know without unpacking the question in front of them. Good use of technical language (innate, synderesis, conscientia) and reference to key authors. This gains you credit in an exam.

Freud (1856-1939) believed that the human psyche was inspired by powerful desires that begin at birth and need to be satisfied. These are critical to our behaviour up until the age of three and master thesis chapter, drive the id. For Freud there were two categories of desire at war within the id: ‘Eros' (the life instinct) and ‘Thanatos' (the death instinct). However, children quickly learn that the world puts restraints upon the degree to which these desires can be met. Humans therefore create the ‘ego', also known as the ‘reality principle', which takes into account the realities of society.

The ego creates an awareness of self and others and is crucial to our interaction with the world. On Crime? The ‘super-ego', which develops from the age of five, internalises and reflects the anger and master results chapter, disappointment of others. It produces feelings of essay gangs, guilt and creates a conscience. This guilty conscience grows into a life and master thesis results chapter, power of persuasive essay gangs, its own and is un-reliant upon the rational thought and reflection of the individual. It is programmed into results chapter human beings by the negative reactions of other people, making it pre-rational and the inevitable outcome of conflict and aggression. In Freud's model of the conscience, the individual is not choosing to act ethically in order to promote the happiness of others. Rather, the ‘super ego' conscience restricts humans' aggressive powerful desires which are potentially destructive.

Therefore, Freud's concept of conscience would not seem to be a particularly reliable guide to ethical decision-making as the individual does not actually make a decision for himself. Exceptionally clear writing and summary of key ideas gives this paragraph a sense of gangs, real quality. Again there is plenty of technical vocabulary relevantly employed here. Piaget, an educational psychologist, modified Freud's theory, stating that conscience has both mature and thesis chapter, immature dimensions. The mature conscience is the ego's search for integrity and is concerned with right and wrong. It acts dynamically and responsively to things of value and looks outwards into the world, developing new insights into situations. In contrast, the immature conscience is a mass of guilty feelings acquired in the early stages of childhood.

It acts out a desire to seek approval from others and is unconcerned with the principles and beliefs of the person. In conducting a survey on how conscience develops, Piaget discovered that children up to the age of ten judge the rightness or wrongness of an action on essay on shopping with, the consequences it produces, whereas older children link rightness with motive and intention. Thesis Results? Conscience is essay, therefore not innate, but environmentally induced and the result of a person's upbringing. It is also highly deterministic as, according to Freud, humans are driven by forces acting out of subconscious minds. Such a conception of conscience could be seen as an unreliable guide. Because the immature conscience is thesis chapter, motivated by guilt, instilled at a young age, it may inspire actions purely to gain approval. It blindly obeys, following feelings rather than reason.

It is backward-looking and the amount of guilt produced is not always relative to the importance of the essay beispiel, action. In addition, the mature and master chapter, immature conscience may potentially conflict. Isaiah Berlin? This would be the thesis results chapter, conflict between adhering to the control of the essay gangs, social group and the desire to behave autonomously. Such a conflict may hamper the results chapter, individual's ability to make clear ethical decisions. You might have employed Piaget's technical distinction between the heteronomous (other-directed, under 10 years) and autonomous (self-directed, over essay 10 years) conscience. Like Freud and Piaget, Fromm partly perceived conscience in terms of the internalisation of external factors. Master? He called this the authoritarian conscience. After experiencing the evil of Nazism, Fromm reflected upon how conscience and freedom can be subverted in the most civilized societies. He used the idea of an authoritarian conscience to explain how individuals such as Eichmann can plead that he was only ‘following orders' at secondary application tips his trial for mass murder in 1961 It is always creditable to use examples to illustrate your point.

Eichmann is an obvious one to take, but there are many from history or the daily newspapers. Be bold in assembling your own illustrations . His concept of an internalised voice of an external authority can be linked to Freud's ‘super ego'. The authoritarian conscience can come from an experience of parental rules or expectations, an adopted belief system with an authority figure, or a sense of admiration for an authority figure. It is obeyed because it is an authority, not because it is good, and explains how civilized humans come to commit atrocities: they are subject to a voice coming from outside them. Often an individual is spurred on master thesis results chapter, by fear and feels bound to the faults of the authority figure. In most cases, his or her identity and six traits of writing, sense of security is wrapped up in the authority figure, as the inner voice becomes someone else's. Furthermore, the individual gives up the right to pass judgement or criticise, losing all sense of autonomy and creativity. The key implication of an authoritarian conscience is results, that the individual takes on the role of authority, becoming his or her own sense of guilt and self-punishment: He takes on the role of authority by essay rates, treating himself with the results, same cruelty and strictness (Fromm).

Clearly, this concept of the authoritarian conscience is a highly unreliable guide to moral decision making, as the individual loses all sense of self, self-worth and originality of thought. However, Fromm also conceived of a ‘humanistic conscience' which diametrically opposes the authoritarian conscience. He defined it as the voice present in every human being and independent from external sanctions and rewards. Developed over a lifetime of learning and reflection, this voice is our true self, found by isaiah berlin essays, listening to ourselves and heeding our ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. Again there is the potential for these two consciences to thesis chapter, conflict, which could potentially affect ethical decision making. The authoritarian conscience could potentially dominate the humanistic conscience. It would appear difficult for an individual suffering under an authority figure to head there ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. According to Fromm you could quite willingly adopt the authoritatrian conscience, for example, by persuasive essay gangs, idol-worshipping the master thesis, authority as Unity Mitford did Adolf Hitler. Although Fromm's concept of the conscience as the ‘voice present in every human being' was not based in religious thinking, it does bear similarities to the view of conscience expressed in the Christian tradition. St Paul taught that conscience was an awareness of what is good and bad, valuing it as a measure of the pureness of our motives. In 2 Corinthians 1: 12, Paul states: for this is what we boast about: our conscience testifies that we have conducted ourselves in the world with pure and good motives and godly sincerity, without earthly wisdom but with God's grace.

For Paul, conscience lay at the centre of our being and was something that all humans have, irrespective of persuasive essay gangs, faith. To act in accordance with one's conscience is to act with integrity based on inner convictions. However, in Romans 7 Paul acknowledges that the conscience can be weak or mistaken: I do the very thing I hate…I can will what is right but I cannot do it. Being true to ourselves can involve struggle and conflict within, sometimes producing feelings of guilt, inadequacy and powerlessness. This paragraph is lacking in evaluation and needs to be considered against the view (thesis) that Aquinas' line is the best. The Anglican theologian Joseph Butler (1692-1752) developed the idea of master thesis results, conscience within the Christian tradition, stating in '15 Sermons', 1726: ‘There is a principle of reflection in men by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of gangs, their own actions…this principle in man…is conscience'. Master Thesis? For Butler, conscience was the ultimate moral decision maker. He argued that humans were influenced by self love and love of others and that conscience directs us towards acting for the happiness of others.

It determines and judges the goodness of actions and of writing, is the ultimate authority in ethical decision-making. Placed within every human by God, conscience is innate, giving intuitive judgements instantly. Butler described it as a ‘natural guide' with divine origin that must be obeyed. It is results chapter, ‘our duty to follow it', and as such we are obliged to essay tips, do what it instructs without considering alternatives. Similarly, the Catholic Cardinal John Henry Newman took an intuitionist approach to conscience. He believed that to follow one's conscience was to follow a divine law, stating: I toast the Pope, but I toast conscience first. This view of a conscience as an innate sense raises the moral question: what happens if our conscience is instructing us to act in a way that most would argue was morally wrong? Surely the results chapter, conscience could be misled or misinformed, ultimately causing us to six traits, act immorally.

Similarly, it would appear that this concept of conscience could be used to justify any action, making it a seemingly unreliable guide to ethical decision-making. For this reason, the Catholic Church tends towards St Thomas Aquinas' approach to conscience. This allows for thesis results chapter, the possibility of error where the conscience is ignorant and directs a person to go against the law of God. Aquinas (1224-1274) described conscience as reason making right decisions and not a voice giving us commands (Summa Theologica). He saw it as a device or faculty used for distinguishing right from wrong actions, believing that humans naturally tend towards the schreiben englisch, good and away from evil. He called this the ‘Synderesis rule': ‘do good and avoid evil'. For Aquinas there were two parts to moral decision making: ‘Synderesis', a natural disposition of the human mind by which we instinctively understand the first principles of morality, and ‘Consientia', the application of knowledge to activity. Whereas ‘synderesis' is an innate and chapter, unchanging basic instinct based on one moral principle, ‘consientia' is a moral skill acquired over time used to assess situations and make decisions as to the best way to act morally. ‘Conscientia' is the power of reason working out berlin what is good and what is evil, and has links with Aristotle's concept of ‘phronesis' or ‘practical wisdom' and Fromm's humanistic conscience. Aquinas also accepted that the conscience can make mistakes and needs to be trained in the ways of morality, realising that at master results chapter times people do bad things because they make a mistake in discriminating good from evil. Aquinas believed that if the conscience makes a factual mistake, then the of writing essay, mistaken conscience is not to blame. However, if one is simply ignorant of the rule, choosing to ignore it, then he or she is to blame and master results, has the potential to learn from the mistake.

This concept of persuasive essay gangs, conscience is important because it more fully acknowledges the individual's active role in moral decision making. Master Thesis Results? It promotes a sense of autonomy and responsibility in decision making, rather than a reaction to external or internal controls. Thus, while environmental factors such as upbringing and childhood experience must have an impact upon an individual's perception of what is regarded as right and wrong, in gangs terms of ethical decision-making Aquinas' interpretation of conscience would seem to master chapter, be the most reliable guide. It combines innate sense and an individual's immediate reaction to a situation with the power of reason. The fact that conscience is a moral skill acquired over medical secondary application time and master, with experience would seem to persuasive essay gangs, be a great asset in making ethical decisions. Blindly obeying an innate sense alone without considering the alternatives as Butler suggests would, however, seem to be an abdication of individual responsibility.

Incredibly strong essay in my opinion. Only criticism would be that the Church don't lean to Aquinas' views because of their merit, but so as to maintain power as an authority. “I’m just so grateful without your site I would have crumbled this year” Wow! Thanks very much for this help. It is an excellent basis for my revision.

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