Mill on liberty essay ii
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On Liberty - John Stuart Mill
In this video, I explore John Stuart Mill s seminal essay, On Liberty. Music: Cool Vibes Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed
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Be Your Best Self Essay Junior Missionary 233892. Be Your Best Self Essay Junior Missionary. Flashback: National Be Your Best Self Week 2012 – Part 1 14 Aug 2012 The series of posts over the next several days will feature essays on National Be Your Best Self Week 2012. These posts were the winning Be Your Best Self | Distinguished Young Women The Be Your Best Self program allows Distinguished Young Women participants to mill on liberty essay ii, reach out and encourage young people nationwide to make a commitment to Be your best self ! Be your best self ! Be your best self ! Distinguished Last year, I presented the Be Your Best Self program to 352 young children, and essay winners, and I wrote essays about how I tried to be my best self in my everyday life. Mission Statement Examples, Samples | Mission Statement Builder Then use our Mission Statement Builder to create your own. My mission is to give, for giving is what I do best and mill on liberty essay, I can learn to do better. I will seek to label paper, learn, Personal Mission Statements – Mission Statements This means encouraging them to buy the on liberty essay ii, best equipment they can afford and to learn the basic The Connection to bell back, Discovering Your Gift of Intuition .. “I, Jerry Soto Jr ., will live everyday with Integrity and vow to consitently make a positive School Mission Statements – Mission Statements A school mission statement can help you decide if what they offer and on liberty ii, the way they provide it lines up with your educational goals. . Each student#039;s self -esteem is steps a short essay fostered by positive relationships with students and staff. On Liberty? educational, and social challenges can best develop the skills and character necessary to rejoin their Samples of private label paper, Mission Statements University of Minnesota Duluth 2 May 2016 My mission is for all of my actions to have the best of intentions; honest, I had learned that it is foolish to base your self esteem on mill on liberty essay ii, what others think of steps, you. I believe my goal for my life is best expressed by a Cal Ripken Jr . SPANISH MISSIONS | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State 15 Jun 2010 The Spanish mission was a frontier institution that sought to . or external threat, all worked together for the common good . .. On Liberty? most notably among the agriculturally self -sufficient Caddos in East Texas, . For Writing A Short Essay? use copyrighted material from this site for mill, purposes of your own that Phillips, Oail Andrew, Jr . Memo Essay? [Bum]. A Parent#039;s Guide Chapter 4: Teaching Children: from Four to Eleven “The home is the mill on liberty essay ii, best place in steps a short the world to teach the child self -restraint, to give him Use this chapter to help you prepare your children for good intimate . The First Presidency (Heber J. Mill On Liberty Ii? Grant, J. Reuben Clark, Jr ., and David O. Steps For Writing A Short? McKay): . On Liberty Essay? are necessary to supply this need” (“Six Small Essays ,” Improvement Era, Sept. Optimist International Junior Optimist International Convention Mission : By providing hope and positive vision, Optimists bring out the best in youth, our communities and ourselves.
Free missionaries Essays and Papers 123HelpMe.com. Free missionaries papers, essays , and research papers. (2.2 pages), Good Essays , [preview] · Black Robe: Huron . His sense of self -worth is dependent upon the traditional standards by which society judges him. Perspective Eyes? . #039;Unless you shave off the mark of essay ii, your heathen belief I will not admit you into the church,#039; said Mr. Kiaga. Free mission trip Essays and Papers 123HelpMe.com Free mission trip papers, essays , and research papers. Through Child's? Because of research, determination, and mill ii, good old American persuasion, this led us to assess and determine the cost of steps essay, self -deploying two CH-47F helicopters to Greenland. a divine mission placed on your life, meaning that your life is dedicated to the furthering Should I Mention My Religion in My College Essay ? Magoosh High 18 Dec 2014 Freshmen · Sophomores · Juniors · Seniors The short answer is this: it#039;s okay to discuss religion in mill on liberty your essay as long as the I call this the “ missionary ” essay . Bell Talking Back Essay? my self -confidence and, interestingly, my grades went up that year! Magoosh blog comment policy: To create the best experience for our a missionary case study Brandon University The following paper, then, is a case study of one particular missionary mechanisms may not provide the best paradigm for the genuine persuit of . Mill Ii? I think it well to write to you fully and ask your advice as to .. Own brain I have had schemes of Indian self -government, and thesis dedication, Native Indian .. Stocking, George W., Jr . 1968. Your Giftedness: Recognizing and Using Your Unique Gifts and Your Giftedness is a companion piece to mill ii, a previous essay I wrote entitled Your Created At this point, it might be a good time to memo essay, consider these questions, Have you ever given much Martin Luther King, Jr . proclaimed: Every person must have a concern for self , and feel a responsibility to discover one#039;s mission in life. 3 Ways to Care for the Heart of ii, Your Missionary Kid A Life Overseas 15 Jun 2014 I thought I#039;d never smell “ junior high” ever again, or play those stupid Remember that your MK#039;s good behavior does not validate your life or ministry, and memo essay, his or her bad behavior does not invalidate it. . Unrooted Childhoods is a series of essays . Mill? .. Through Child's Eyes? Ask A Counselor: How#039;s my self -care plan holding up? Maryknoll Essay Contest for Students Maryknoll Fathers Brothers The essays are a good way to connect with the on liberty, young folks. They renew my hope in the future of the private research paper, Catholic Church in the U.S. and throughout the world. I pray The Mission : A Theological Analysis BU Personal Websites to “sacrifice” the mill on liberty ii, mission for what it privately claims is in its own best interest, the pasta essay winners, Church . THE WILLINGNESS TO LAY DOWN YOUR LIFE FOR A FRIEND . self -defense and mill essay, other oppressive forms of steps essay, violence, it is not always practical.
Martin Luther King Jr . call people to mill essay, the cause of non-violence in the name of America Needs You: President Monson Shares 2 Ways Members 4 Jul 2017 We love President Monson, and to celebrate the Fourth of July, we thought we would share this excerpt from his book Be Your Best Self that Science and technology education in a civilizing mission UBC 22 Oct 2008 Your browser doesn#039;t seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item. how science and technology education were used by lay missionary society because they utilized their powers for the common good . 26 Self -healing was a prerequisite to becoming a shaman as the Science and technology education in steps a short essay a civilizing mission UBC 22 Oct 2008 Your browser doesn#039;t seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item. how science and technology education were used by lay missionary society because they utilized their powers for on liberty essay ii, the common good . 26 Self -healing was a prerequisite to becoming a shaman as the. The Intellectual Mission of the Saracens The Atlantic. Pasta Essay Winners? When, therefore, we speak of the intellectual mission of the Saracens, we use . They toiled perseveringly and with self -denial, travelling to ii, the ends of the earth, . Memo Essay? as they were termed by preeminence, were recognized by the best Christian .. you are, what your parents do, or where you grow up, with enough education The Event | Archdiocese of Port of Spain paul keating redfern speech essay about smoking a supermarket in . gesetz beispiel essay context essay vce airport be your best self essay junior miss lunch 17. Conclusion: Our Challenging Mission | Bible.org 27 Mar 2006 It is our hope that this book has helped you in that mission . One of the best surveys of the subject, especially good on the history of Copernicus, God and mill on liberty essay ii, Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. . Essay Winners? Veith, Gene Edward, Jr . Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Christian Internships Compassion International Be a part of an internship program that fits both your passion and mill on liberty ii, education, and watch their junior or senior year (graduation dates of December 2017-May 2019). Steps? Ability to answer the essay questions articulately; Commitment to complete entire During the mission trip, interns get firsthand experience with the mill ii, work Improving quality and reducing inequities: a challenge in achieving In addition to label paper, the “culture of quality” evident in the values, mission , and Central to mill essay, quality improvement at BHCS is the Best Care Committee. with medical treatment, adherence to bell hooks back, mutually agreed goals of mill on liberty ii, self -management, and, possibly, reduced hospital readmissions. Betancourt JR , Green AR, Carrillo JE, Park ER. Perspective Child's? premission latterdaysaints Reddit 9 Aug 2013 selftext:text: search for text in mill essay ii self post contents; self :yes (or self :no) Gospel Topic Essays LDS.org / Missionaries the official missionary preparation page of the When missionaries are paying a visit to your home, try your best to . You might not have much control over that as a junior companion, 16 Cases of Mission Command US Army Combined Arms Center the past in which Mission Command principles played a decisive role. Some vignettes show junior officers following their commander#039;s intent and exercising conducive for self -study programs. None of the 16 cases in this .. looked to employ his subordinates at of way through child's eyes tasks for which they were best suited. Like Van Dorn#039;s force, “Mastering Our Evil Selves” / “Mastering Ourselves” | The Martin He will send thousands of dollars to Africa and essay ii, China for the missionary effort. Martin Luther King, Jr . Career in Ministry . God grant that you will choose your good self thereby mastering your evil self.
King refers to William James (1842-1910), whose essay “The Will To Believe” (1897) explores the private, role of the mill ii, will in Mission in the New Testament: An Evangelical Approach (American Essays analyze the works of Paul, the Synoptic Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Mission in the Old Testament: Israel as a Light to the Nations by Walter C. Child's? Jr . Kaiser Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #1,953,864 in on liberty Books (See Top 100 in Books) .. Advertise Your Products · Self -Publish with Us · Become an Amazon Vendor. Through Child's Eyes? ©2017 KooLna . All rights reserved. Mill Essay Ii? Developed by Brome.
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On Liberty Chapter 2 Summary and Analysis | GradeSaver
1 Computing with Language: Texts and essay, Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and write it every day. Paper! Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and analyze it in mill on liberty essay a variety of perspective of way eyes interesting ways. But before we can do this, we have to get started with the mill essay ii Python interpreter. One of the friendly things about Python is that it allows you to type directly into paper the interactive interpreter — the mill program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the back Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by mill on liberty typing idle (if this is not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to run the of way eyes Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit http://python.org/ for detailed instructions. NLTK 3.0 works for Python 2.6 and 2.7.
If you are using one of these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). In order to get the expected behavior of division you need to on liberty essay, type: from __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the thesis to god Python interpreter is ii, now waiting for input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the answer and displaying it, the prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Research! Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the interpreter handles it:
This produced a syntax error . In Python, it doesn't make sense to end an instruction with a plus sign. The Python interpreter indicates the line where the problem occurred (line 1 of mill on liberty essay ii stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from http://nltk.org/ . Follow the instructions there to download the version required for your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and bell essay, install the essay data required for the book by typing the following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the thesis dedication to god NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using nltk.download() . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for the examples and exercises in this book.
It consists of essay ii about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. The full collection of data (i.e., all in tales contest the downloader) is nearly ten times this size (at the time of writing) and continues to expand. Once the data is downloaded to your machine, you can load some of it using the Python interpreter. The first step is to on liberty essay ii, type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the interpreter to steps for writing a short essay, load some texts for mill ii us to explore: from nltk.book import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. The book module contains all the data you will need as you read this chapter. After printing a welcome message, it loads the memo essay text of mill essay several books (this will take a few seconds).
Here's the command again, together with the output that you will see. Take care to get spelling and punctuation right, and remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to for writing essay, find out about these texts, we just have to enter their names at the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Python interpreter, and have some data to work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from simply reading it. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of a given word, together with some context.
Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the term concordance , and then placing monstrous in mill on liberty parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to save re-typing, you might be able to use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to access the previous command and modify the word being searched. You can also try searches on some of the thesis dedication to god other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and essay, Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Search the book of Genesis to find out how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . To God! You could look at on liberty ii, text4 , the hooks talking Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of English going back to 1789, and search for words like nation , terror , god to see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is on liberty ii, uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the research richness and diversity of language. In the next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and a ___ size . What other words appear in a similar range of mill contexts?
We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by bell talking essay two or more words, such as monstrous and mill on liberty essay, very . We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to a short, display some words that appear in the same context. However, we can also determine the location of a word in mill the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an instance of a word, and pasta tales essay 2013, each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).
You can produce this plot as shown below. You might like to mill essay ii, try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the quotes, commas, brackets and bell hooks back essay, parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.
Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to investigate changes in language use over essay ii time. Important: You need to have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the graphical plots used in this book. Please see http://nltk.org/ for dedication to god installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using https://books.google.com/ngrams. Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. Mill Essay Ii! To do this, we type the name of the text followed by the term generate . (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is private research paper, not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in essay a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the computer to count the words in thesis dedication a text in a variety of useful ways. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.
Test your understanding by modifying the examples, and mill ii, trying the exercises at the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the length of a text from memo essay, start to mill on liberty essay ii, finish, in terms of the words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to get the length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of steps for writing Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of mill on liberty essay ii characters — such as hairy , his , or :) — that we want to perspective through child's eyes, treat as a group. When we count the number of tokens in a text, say, the phrase to be or not to be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to ii, , two of be , and one each of or and not . But there are only four distinct vocabulary items in this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of perspective through eyes Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to pose the question slightly differently. The vocabulary of a text is just the mill essay ii set of dedication to god tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.
In Python we can obtain the vocabulary items of text3 with the mill on liberty ii command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the size of the vocabulary indirectly, by asking for for writing a short essay the number of items in the set, and again we can use len to mill, obtain this number . Of Way Through Child's! Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. Mill! A word type is the form or spelling of the word independently of its specific occurrences in a text — that is, the word considered as a unique item of vocabulary. Thesis Dedication! Our count of on liberty ii 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.
Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the text. The next example shows us that the number of distinct words is just 6% of the total number of words, or equivalently that each word is used 16 times on private label research paper average (remember if you're using Python 2, to start with from mill on liberty essay, __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the text is tales 2013 winners, taken up by a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in mill on liberty text5 ? How much is this as a percentage of the total number of words in memo essay this text?
You may want to repeat such calculations on several texts, but it is tedious to on liberty, keep retyping the formula. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and memo essay, associate it with a block of code. Now you only have to type a short name instead of one or more complete lines of mill essay Python code, and bell hooks essay, you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of code that does a task for mill on liberty essay ii us is thesis, called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the keyword def . The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the mill prompt from to . after encountering the colon at bell hooks back essay, the end of the first line. The . prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to appear next. Mill Ii! It is up to you to do the indentation, by perspective through typing four spaces or hitting the tab key. To finish the mill on liberty essay ii indented block just enter a blank line.
In the definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and reoccurs in the block of code that will run when the function is used . Similarly, percentage() is defined to take two parameters, named count and of way through eyes, total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for mill on liberty essay specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by dedication typing its name, followed by an open parenthesis, the name of the text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to separate the name of a task — such as lexical_diversity() — from the data that the task is to be performed on — such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in this chapter, such as len() , set() , and sorted() . On Liberty Essay! By convention, we will always add an dedication to god, empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in len() , just to make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of Python expression. Functions are an important concept in programming, and we only mention them at essay, the outset to give newcomers a sense of the memo essay power and creativity of programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to essay, use functions when tabulating data, as in 1.1. Dedication To God! Each row of the table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.
2 A Closer Look at Python: Texts as Lists of Words. You've seen some important elements of the Python programming language. On Liberty Essay Ii! Let's take a few moments to review them systematically. What is a text? At one level, it is a sequence of symbols on a page such as this one. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of sections, where each section is a sequence of paragraphs, and so on. However, for our purposes, we will think of a text as nothing more than a sequence of words and punctuation. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of bell hooks talking Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by essay ii the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and perspective of way through child's eyes, surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is known as a list in mill on liberty essay ii Python: it is how we store a text. We can inspect it by perspective through child's typing the mill essay ii name . Label Research Paper! We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for on liberty ii you, one for the opening sentence of each of our texts, sent2 … sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the rest for yourself using the Python interpreter (if you get an error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from eyes, nltk.book import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and ii, a list of words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Essay! Repeat some of the other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is on liberty essay, that we can use Python's addition operator on private label research lists.
Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the on liberty ii first list, followed by everything from the second list: This special use of the addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into a single list. We can concatenate sentences to build up a text. We don't have to literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to research paper, add a single item to a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to a list, the list itself is on liberty ii, updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in hooks talking essay Python is essay, a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and quotes. Just as with an ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of steps for writing essay words in text1 with len(text1) , and count the occurrences in a text of a particular word — say, 'heaven' — using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of a Python list by mill on liberty essay ii their order of occurrence in the list.
The number that represents this position is the item's index . We instruct Python to show us the item that occurs at an index such as 173 in a text by writing the name of the text followed by the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the index of memo essay when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the words of a text, or, more generally, the elements of any list. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an on liberty ii, artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from steps for writing a short, zero: sent element zero, written sent , is the mill on liberty ii first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is child's, 'word10' . The reason is mill essay ii, simple: the moment Python accesses the content of a list from the computer's memory, it is private label research, already at the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to go. Mill On Liberty Essay! Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of counting from zero is for writing, initially confusing, but typical of on liberty essay modern programming languages. Pasta Tales 2013! You'll quickly get the hang of it if you've mastered the system of counting centuries where 19XY is a year in mill on liberty the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the for writing a short floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to level n . Now, if we accidentally use an on liberty essay, index that is too large, we get an error: This time it is not a syntax error, because the pasta tales contest 2013 program fragment is syntactically correct.
Instead, it is a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the context of the error, followed by the name of the mill on liberty ii error, IndexError , and a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at slicing, using our artificial sentence again. Perspective Child's Eyes! Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m … n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the on liberty first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and we can omit the second number if the slice goes to the end : We can modify an element of a list by assigning to child's, one of its index values. In the next example, we put sent on on liberty the left of the equals sign . We can also replace an entire slice with new material . A consequence of this last change is that the list only has four elements, and accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.
Check your understanding by for writing trying the exercises on lists at the end of this chapter. From the start of 1, you have had access to texts called text1 , text2 , and so on. Mill Ii! It saved a lot of typing to be able to refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for thesis dedication to god anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in essay the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. This process is called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to label, type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to the left. Mill Ii! It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and underscores.
Here are some examples of variables and assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the definition of dedication my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Mill Essay! Python uses the . prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you — and to help anyone else who reads your Python code — what your code is meant to perspective through eyes, do. Python does not try to make sense of the names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . On Liberty! The only memo essay restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to mill on liberty essay ii, follow. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:
Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to 9 ) or letters. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Memo Essay! Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Be careful not to mill on liberty ii, insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to access the through child's elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to a variable , index a string , and slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of a list to make a single string, or split a string into mill on liberty a list, as follows: We will come back to thesis dedication to god, the topic of strings in 3. For the time being, we have two important building blocks — lists and mill, strings — and are ready to get back to bell hooks talking back, some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to our exploration of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on large quantities of text. We began this discussion in 1, and saw how to search for words in context, how to compile the vocabulary of a text, how to generate random text in the same style, and so on.
In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and use automatic methods to find characteristic words and expressions of a text. As in essay ii 1, you can try new features of the Python language by copying them into the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in through child's the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to check your understanding of the mill on liberty essay ii last section by predicting the output of the following code. You can use the interpreter to check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the private paper words of a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. One method would be to keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of rows, and it would be an exceedingly laborious process — so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)
The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the frequency of each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in mill on liberty essay the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Let's use a FreqDist to find the 50 most frequent words of Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the name of the text as an argument . We can inspect the total number of bell hooks back essay words (outcomes) that have been counted up — 260,819 in the case of Moby Dick . Essay! The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for steps essay yourself, for mill on liberty essay ii text2 . Be careful to use the correct parentheses and uppercase letters. If you get an error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to start your work with from pasta tales essay 2013, nltk.book import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of essay ii this text? Only one word, whale , is slightly informative! It occurs over 900 times. The rest of the words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?
We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for nearly half the book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in private research Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the hapaxes mean in on liberty essay ii any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of Words. Next, let's look at the long words of a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from set theory. We would like to find the perspective child's eyes words from the vocabulary of the text that are more than 15 characters long.
Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is true if and essay, only if w is more than 15 characters long. Now we can express the words of interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of tales essay 2013 winners V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in mill on liberty (1b). (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.
We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the text and changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in vocab if . ] ? Let's return to our task of finding words that characterize a text. Notice that the long words in dedication text4 reflect its national focus — constitutionally , transcontinental — whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and mill essay, infrequent long words (e.g. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the words are longer than seven letters, and fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the hooks talking back essay text.
It is a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of thousands of words, produces some informative output. A collocation is on liberty, a sequence of words that occur together unusually often. Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the wine is not. A characteristic of collocations is that they are resistant to private label, substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from on liberty essay, a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . Thesis Dedication! ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is Python's way of saying that it is ready to compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. For now, you just need to mill ii, know to tell Python to convert it into a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of words than-done is a bigram, and we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to pay more attention to the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. The collocations() function does this for us.
We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to the genre of the texts. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at the distribution of word lengths in a text, by creating a FreqDist out of a long list of steps for writing a short essay numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the on liberty essay ii lengths of words in text1 , and to god, the FreqDist then counts the mill essay number of times each of these occurs . The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of steps for writing a short essay which is a number corresponding to mill essay, a word token in the text. Pasta Essay 2013 Winners! But there are at most only 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . On Liberty! twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.
One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in pasta tales essay contest winners the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of mill ii length 3 account for roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and hooks essay, we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the ability to essay, work with language, and the potential to save human effort through automation.
A key feature of programming is the ability of machines to make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is satisfied. This feature is known as control , and is the focus of bell hooks talking back this section. Python supports a wide range of mill on liberty essay ii operators, such as and = , for testing the thesis dedication to god relationship between values. The full set of on liberty these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from a sentence of of way through child's eyes news text.
Here are some examples — only the essay ii operator is private, changed from one line to mill on liberty, the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is undefined, you need to first type: from nltk.book import * There is a common pattern to all of these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is a Python test that yields either true or false. Perspective Of Way Through Child's! In the mill on liberty essay ii cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of memo essay words, using the functions listed in 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to select words from our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the mill essay following examples and try to explain what is going on in each one.
Next, try to make up some conditions of your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the form [f(w) for . ] or [w.f() for . ] , where f is a function that operates on a word to compute its length, or to convert it to tales essay contest 2013, uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on every element of a list.
In the preceding examples, it goes through each word in text1 , assigning each one in turn to the variable w and performing the specified operation on the variable. The notation just described is called a list comprehension. This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an important part of becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to mill on liberty, the question of vocabulary size, and apply the for writing same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to count the on liberty essay ii lowercase-only items, but this gives the wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to execute a block of code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.
We already saw examples of conditional tests in code like [w for w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . The if statement checks whether the memo essay test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the essay if statement is invoked and the print statement is executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the print statement by thesis typing four spaces. When we use the Python interpreter we have to add an extra blank line in essay order for it to detect that the nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the conditional test to len(word) = 5 , to check that the memo essay length of word is greater than or equal to 5 , then the test will no longer be true. This time, the body of the if statement will not be executed, and no message is shown to on liberty essay, the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the code in bell hooks talking the indented block will be run.
Another control structure is the for on liberty essay ii loop. Try the following, and remember to include the colon and the four spaces: This is called a loop because Python executes the code in circular fashion. Memo Essay! It starts by performing the assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to mill on liberty essay, name the a short essay first item of the mill essay list. Then, it displays the memo essay value of word to the user. Next, it goes back to the for statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. It continues in on liberty ii this fashion until every item of the list has been processed. Now we can combine the if and for for writing a short statements. We will loop over on liberty every item of the list, and print the item only if it ends with the letter l . We'll pick another name for the variable to child's, demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at the end of the line, before the indentation begins.
In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. The colon indicates that the current statement relates to mill essay, the indented block that follows. We can also specify an action to be taken if the condition of the if statement is not met. Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Perspective Through! Notice that these also have colons before the indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of mill on liberty essay ii Python knowledge, you can start to build multiline Python programs. It's important to perspective through, develop such programs in on liberty pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. This is why the Python interactive interpreter is research paper, so invaluable, and why you should get comfortable using it.
Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. On Liberty Essay Ii! First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over each item and print it. Notice the extra information given in the print statement: end=' ' . This tells Python to print a space (not the default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the help of texts and the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of language and computation by building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the nitty-gritty of code in private label order to paint a bigger picture of natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to navigate the universe of mill on liberty essay information locked up in text on the Web. Search engines have been crucial to the growth and popularity of the steps for writing a short Web, but have some shortcomings. Mill On Liberty Ii! It takes skill, knowledge, and some luck, to extract answers to such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?
What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in the past week? Getting a computer to private label paper, answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and with a level of robustness that is still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and a major part of intelligent behaviour is understanding language. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to give you a sense of the interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of a word was intended in a given context. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the dish , you can detect that both serve and dish are being used with their food meanings. It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from sports to crockery in mill the space of three words.
This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro private taking out mill his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the court. Steps! In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. Essay! As another example of this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the book by Chesterton (agentive — Chesterton was the author of the book); the cup by label research the stove (locative — the stove is where the cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal — Friday is the time of the submitting). Observe in (3c) that the meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by mill on liberty ii . A deeper kind of language understanding is to work out who did what to whom — i.e., to detect the subjects and objects of verbs. You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. In the sentence the thieves stole the paintings it is easy to back essay, tell who performed the mill essay ii stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in (4c), and try to determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is pasta tales contest 2013 winners, ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for mill on liberty tackling this problem include anaphora resolution — identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to — and of way through, semantic role labeling — identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to move on to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and essay, machine translation . In the first case, a machine should be able to answer a user's questions relating to collection of texts:
The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to thesis dedication to god, paintings and not to thieves. On Liberty Ii! In the second case, the machine should be able to translate the text into another language, accurately conveying the meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into French, we are forced to choose the gender of the pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the thieves are found, and elles (feminine) if the paintings are found. Perspective Through Child's! Correct translation actually depends on essay correct understanding of the dedication to god pronoun. In all of these examples, working out the sense of a word, the subject of a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of essay ii languages. Its roots go back to the early days of the Cold War, when the promise of private automatic translation led to substantial government sponsorship, and with it, the mill ii genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of languages, and some are integrated into web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:
Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to German (in the line starting 1 ), but on the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). After line 5 the thesis sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by the commas, and the change from on liberty essay ii, jump to leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and pasta 2013, it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using http://translationparty.com/ Machine translation is on liberty, difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and because word order must be changed in keeping with the grammatical structure of the target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by through child's collecting massive quantities of on liberty parallel texts from news and government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Given a document in German and English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and perspective through child's, phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.
In the history of artificial intelligence, the chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the mill essay ii Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to essay, a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to provide driving instructions or details of nearby restaurants unless the required information had already been stored and suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to understand the user's goals: the on liberty essay user asks when a movie is showing and the system correctly determines from this that the user wants to see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in steps a short order to essay, interact naturally. Dedication To God! Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . Mill On Liberty Ii! However, the developers of commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and business logic to ensure that the different ways in which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in a way that makes sense for private research the particular application. So, if you type When is . , or I want to on liberty ii, know when . , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is enough for the system to provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and interpreted in context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to spoken output; different types of linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the process.
Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. Perspective Of Way Child's! 5.1 shows the architecture of a simple dialogue system. Along the essay top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is a pipeline of some language understanding components . Child's! These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to some kind of meaning representation. Mill On Liberty Essay! Along the paper middle, moving from right to left, is the reverse pipeline of components for converting concepts to speech. These components make up the dynamic aspects of the system.
At the bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of on liberty essay ii language-related data that the processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an example of a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an memo essay, NLTK chatbot. To see the available chatbots, run nltk.chat.chatbots() . (Remember to import nltk first.) The challenge of language understanding has been brought into focus in recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.
Suppose you want to find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Max Purnell , and mill ii, that you have another short text that seems to be relevant, for pasta tales essay contest 2013 example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to Parliament in the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of Coromandel by defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into third place . Does the essay ii text provide enough evidence for you to accept the hypothesis? In this particular case, the answer will be No. You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is private research, very hard to come up with automated methods for mill on liberty ii making the right decision. Thesis! The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for on liberty essay brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Consequently, some linguistic analysis is thesis dedication, crucial. In the previous example, it is on liberty essay, important for the system to note that Sandra Goudie names the person being defeated in the hypothesis, not the person doing the defeating in the text. As another illustration of the difficulty of the task, consider the following text-hypothesis pair: In order to perspective child's, determine whether the essay ii hypothesis is supported by the text, the system needs the through child's eyes following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an editor of a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is author of eighteen books. Despite the on liberty essay research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in a general and robust manner. We can wait for these difficult artificial intelligence problems to be solved, but in the meantime it is necessary to pasta tales winners, live with some severe limitations on essay ii the reasoning and hooks back essay, knowledge capabilities of natural language systems. Accordingly, right from the beginning, an important goal of NLP research has been to make progress on the difficult task of mill essay building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of unrestricted knowledge and reasoning capabilities.
Indeed, this is one of the goals of this book, and we hope to equip you with the knowledge and private, skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . Mill Essay! We can use indexing, slicing, and essay, the len() function on lists. A word token is essay, a particular appearance of a given word in a text; a word type is the bell talking back essay unique form of the word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and word types using len(set(text)) . Mill On Liberty Essay! We obtain the vocabulary of a text t using sorted(set(t)) . We operate on each item of thesis a text using [f(x) for x in text] . To derive the vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for mill essay w in text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for child's w in t: or for word in text: . This must be followed by on liberty essay ii the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed each time through the memo essay loop. We test a condition using an if statement: if len(word) 5: . This must be followed by mill on liberty essay ii the colon character and an indented block of code, to label research paper, be executed only if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the words of a text and their frequency of appearance). A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and can be reused. Functions are defined using the mill on liberty def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the function, and memo essay, act as placeholders for actual data values. On Liberty Essay Ii! A function is called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in programming, natural language processing, and linguistics, all mixed in together. Many of them are consolidated in the following chapters. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at http://nltk.org/ ), including links to additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.
You may also like to read up on some linguistics and steps for writing a short essay, NLP-related concepts in mill on liberty ii Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at for writing essay, http://docs.python.org/ , including the many tutorials and comprehensive reference materials linked there. A Beginner's Guide to Python is available at http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide . Mill On Liberty Ii! Miscellaneous questions about Python might be answered in the FAQ at http://python.org/doc/faq/general/ . As you delve into research NLTK, you might want to subscribe to on liberty essay ii, the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. There is also an NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to private paper, use Python and NLTK for language analysis work. On Liberty! Details of these lists are available at perspective child's eyes, http://nltk.org/ . For more information on the topics covered in 5, and on mill on liberty essay NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of contest Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. Mill Essay! (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in thesis to god 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for Computational Linguistics is the international organization that represents the field of mill on liberty essay NLP.
The ACL website ( http://www.aclweb.org/ ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about tales essay contest 2013, international and regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of useful resources; and mill, the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the memo essay NLP research literature from the past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to on liberty essay ii, the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. That works out to 141167095653376 . How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to private label research paper, lists. Mill Essay Ii! What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.
How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for steps for writing a short humor and on liberty essay ii, romance fiction in 1.1. Memo Essay! Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the different roles played by the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the couples? #9788; Find the collocations in text5 . #9788; Consider the mill following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the bell purpose of this expression. Describe the two steps involved in mill on liberty performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on tales essay contest winners lists and strings.
Define a string and mill essay, assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in the string). Print the contents of this variable in two ways, first by simply typing the variable name and pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Notice that the tales essay strings are joined together without any spaces. Mill On Liberty Ii! How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of words, using the syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to research paper, convert this into a string. Mill On Liberty Ii! Use split() to split the string back into steps the list form you had to mill on liberty ii, start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in pasta tales contest 2013 various combinations (using the plus operator) to form whole sentences.
What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the essay following two expressions, which have the bell essay same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is a sequence of characters. On Liberty Essay! What does sent1 do? Why?
Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of tales essay contest winners text3 is provided to mill on liberty essay ii, you in the variable sent3 . Steps For Writing A Short! The index of the in on liberty sent3 is 1, because sent3 gives us 'the' . What are the indexes of the two other occurrences of this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of conditionals in 4. Label Research Paper! Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Show them in mill ii alphabetical order. #9788; Type the memo essay expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of uses for on liberty essay ii this built-in function in private label research paper later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the index of the word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the parentheses. By a process of trial and error, find the slice for mill on liberty ii the complete sentence that contains this word.
#9681; Using list addition, and research, the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the sentences sent1 . sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the case for other texts? #9681; What is the difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). Ii! With the to god help of mill on liberty ii a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in memo essay decreasing order of frequency. #9681; Review the on liberty essay discussion of tales essay 2013 winners looping with conditions in on liberty ii 4. Use a combination of for and if statements to loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the uppercase words, one per line. #9681; Write expressions for memo essay finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.
The result should be in the form of a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . On Liberty! ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for memo essay an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . On Liberty Essay Ii! Now write code to perform the following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the following Python code do? sum(len(w) for w in text1) Can you use it to work out the average word length of a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for the text, and which returns the vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Private Paper! Try the following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?
Can you think of a practical application for this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. Mill On Liberty Essay Ii! This is a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright © 2014 the authors. It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the contest winners terms of the mill essay Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/].
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luciferase essay MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs predicted to mill essay, post-transcriptionally regulate the majority of the memo essay transcriptome . These 20–24 nucleotide-long RNAs have been involved in numerous physiological processes such as development and differentiation , and mill on liberty essay ii, have been linked to bell hooks talking essay, many human disorders including cancer  and neurodegenerative disease . MiRNAs are recognized mainly as negative post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Mill Ii? They exert their function by association to miRNA recognition elements (MREs), predominantly within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. In most cases, miRNA binding to mRNA results in the repression of the transcript by one of two mechanisms: mRNA cleavage or translational repression . To understand the role of miRNAs in different physiological processes, it is important to memo essay, utilize experimental approaches that allow for mill on liberty ii the detection of fine miRNA-induced alterations in mRNA expression. Private Label? Currently, the functional relevance of MREs is on liberty ii extensively assessed using reporter gene assays in back essay cell-based systems.
In the miRNA-adapted version of this assay, reporter activity is an indicator of miRNA capacity in regulating the reporter expression in essay vitro . Cells are co-transfected with the miRNA and a plasmid containing a Firefly or Renilla luciferase coding sequence upstream of an a short essay mRNA 3'UTR from the gene of interest. If the ii mRNA 3'UTR is a target of the miRNA, the thesis dedication luminescence variation will be altered, a reflection of the changes in the transcript’s stability and/or translation efficiency. Recently, we profiled miRNAs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinal cord tissues and used miRNA reporter gene assays to test the functionality of dysregulated miRNAs . We observed that the controls and the normalization methods most commonly reported in these assays do not take into consideration the possibility of direct and/or indirect effects of the miRNAs on the luciferase mRNA. Here, we present a comprehensive miRNA reporter gene assay protocol that includes a rigorous normalization of the mill on liberty essay data. We show that incomplete normalization can lead to erroneous conclusions, not only to private research paper, the magnitude of the miRNA expression regulation, but more importantly to the type of miRNA regulation (up- or down-regulation). On Liberty? Interestingly, these results suggest that miRNA up-regulatory effects are not uncommon and steps for writing a short, could reveal previously undetected roles for miRNAs in regulating the transcriptome. Currently, the luciferase reporter gene assay is extensively used to evaluate the functional relevance of miRNAs. On Liberty Essay? We have observed that studies in the miRNA field lack rigorous normalization of the reporter activity data, generally only showing a transfection control (such as Renilla luciferase) and a control without miRNA or a non- targeting miRNA negative control. Hooks? These types of analyses do not consider the possibility of indirect effects of miRNAs on the luciferase transcript and/or the existence of functional MREs in mill on liberty the luciferase protein coding region [7,8,9].
Therefore, it is important to consider that, in of way through eyes addition to their putative effects on their mRNAs targets, miRNAs and other cellular factors could potentially regulate luciferase mRNA, critically affecting its activity. It is mill on liberty ii important to note that, while miRNAs and other factors could affect both Firefly and Renilla luciferase mRNA levels, it is the regulation of the luciferase linked to the mRNA 3'UTR ( Firefly in our study) that is relevant for the normalization of the reporter gene assay data. Any miRNA or cellular effect over the control luciferase ( Renilla in our study) will be cancelled due to the normalization. We performed reporter assays by transfecting HEK293T cells with a plasmid containing Firefly and Renilla luciferase coding sequences (pmirGLO) or the same vector harboring the low molecular weight neurofilament ( NEFL ) mRNA 3'UTR linked to the 3'-end of the Firefly luciferase (pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR). To God? Renilla luciferase was used as transfection control. In these experiments, the independent effect of three miRNAs, miR-507, miR-518e* and on liberty essay, miR-let-7a (negative control) were studied. Analyses using miRanda algorithm (see experimental section) showed that miR-507 has four MREs and miR-518e* has one MRE within the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. Steps Essay? Additionally, miR-507 had two MREs within the Firefly luciferase coding region (Figure 1). Six wells of each condition were transfected to mill on liberty ii, obtain the mean of luciferase activity of each experiment (for details, see Experimental Section). After normalizing each sample’s Firefly luciferase activity value with its respective Renilla luciferase activity value (data not shown), we calculated the mean of the luciferase activity (Mean Luc) for of way through eyes each experiment ( n = 3; Table 1). Essay Ii? In this step of the analysis, we noticed that both miR-507 and miR-518e* down-regulated the luciferase activity when pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR was transfected.
Interestingly, the negative control miR-let-7a also appeared to dedication, down-regulate the luciferase activity (Table 1, Mean Luc columns, rows b compared to rows a). We then analyzed the effect of mill essay ii, each miRNA on the luciferase mRNA without the 3'UTR (pmirGLO transfection), and again found that miR-507, miR-518e* and miR-let-7a down-regulated the luciferase activity (Table 1, Mean Luc columns, rows d compared to rows c). pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR. pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR. pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR. Abbreviations: Exp: Experiment; Luc: Luciferase; NEFL : Low molecular weight neurofilament; UTR: Untranslated region.
In a second step of normalization, we calculated the effect of miR-507, miR-518e* and miR-let-7a on the Firefly luciferase with or without the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR (Table 1, columns A and B; Figure 2). This normalization is critical to obtain the specific effect of the miRNA over the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. As is described in Figure 3a, the transfection of pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR accounts for cellular effects (e.g., RNA binding proteins, endogenous miRNAs, etc. ) on the expression of luciferase linked to NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. The co-transfection of the pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR and the exogenous miRNA account for cellular and exogenous miRNA effects on the expression of luciferase linked to NEFL mRNA 3'UTR (Figure 3b). Pasta Tales 2013 Winners? When the mill essay normalization of column A is performed (Table 1), cancellation of the cellular effects occurs, leaving only the exogenous miRNA effects on the expression of luciferase linked to NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. Figure 3c,d describe the controls, pmirGLO and pmirGLO plus the exogenous miRNA respectively, which account for thesis dedication to god the effects on luciferase expression without 3'UTR. When the normalization of column B is performed (Table 1), we obtain the effect of exogenous miRNA on luciferase expression without 3'UTR. Thus, to obtain the specific effect of the exogenous miRNA on mill, only NEFL mRNA 3'UTR, the effect of dedication to god, this miRNA over the luciferase coding sequence must be eliminated. This is achieved by dividing column A by B (Table 1, Luc relative variation column; Figure 2). Calculation of the on liberty ii relative variation in luciferase activity showed that only miR-507 down-regulated the activity of luciferase (0.82 ± 0.02, p 0.001).
Interestingly, we found that miR-518e* up-regulated the activity of the reporter (1.66 ± 0.02; p 0.001). No relative changes in perspective through eyes the activity of the reporter linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR was found in cells transfected with miR-let-7a control miRNA (1.05 ± 0.03, p = 0.059). Without this normalization procedure, our data would have falsely concluded that miR-518e* and the negative control miR-let-7a could both down-regulate luciferase via the 3'UTR of NEFL . Our results clearly demonstrate that performing incomplete controls or normalization on the data of the mill essay ii miRNA reporter gene assay without considering the impact of cellular factors and exogenous miRNAs on luciferase without 3'UTR could generate miscalculation of the relative variation in luciferase activity, leading to erroneous conclusions about miRNA functionality. The most extensive experimental approaches to determine functional relevance of predicted MREs are the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to detect interaction between miRNAs and their targets, and the reporter gene assay to study miRNA regulatory effects. Considering that the reporter gene assay is a unique functional tool to study miRNA-based regulation on mRNA expression, it is pasta tales essay contest 2013 winners extremely important to perform appropriate data analysis to avoid inaccurate results and conclusions. Currently, the majority of published miRNA studies perform normalization using only a transfection control reporter (e.g., Renilla luciferase) and mill, controls lacking exogenous miRNA or transfecting a miRNA negative control with luciferase linked to the 3'UTR as target. However, the effect of the exogenous miRNA and label research, cellular factors on the luciferase coding sequence alone has not been included as a control, and as described here, must be considered. We demonstrate that normalization against essay ii the effect of the miRNA and cellular factors on of way, the luciferase coding sequence alone is essential to obtaining the on liberty essay specific impact of the miRNA on the 3'UTR target. We propose this normalization method as standard for private label miRNA luciferase reporter assays. Therefore, errors and essay, misinterpretations in miRNA functionality commonly observed using previous protocols can be avoided. MiRNAs predominantly, but not exclusively, exert their functions through interaction with mRNA 3'UTRs .
There is evidence that miRNAs have functional MREs in perspective of way through eyes 5'UTRs [11,12] and protein coding regions of mammalian transcripts [13,14]. Essay? In fact, Argonaute HITS-CLIP and private label research, PAR-CLIP studies have shown that almost half of all Argonaute binding sites are located in mill on liberty essay human protein coding regions [15,16]. In addition, it is well known that reporter gene assays reveal specific regulation of miRNAs on their targets that could be both directly mediated through interaction, and indirect for instance through the regulation of other factors involved in for writing mRNA stability. For example, miR-375 down-regulates the expression of HuD, an RNA-binding protein that participates in mRNA stability and other regulatory processes, and thus governs the fate of many neuronal mRNAs  through an independent mechanism. Prediction analysis showed MREs for both miR-507 and ii, miR-518e* within the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. The results of the reporter gene assay support the idea that both miRNAs regulate the reporter linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. After normalizing against both the transfection control ( Renilla luciferase) and the control without the miRNA, miR-507 shows a down-regulatory effect on the luciferase linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR that once normalized for effects on luciferase, is only half as strong as what it was originally detected to be before normalization.
In fact, a manual search revealed two MREs for to god miR-507 within the essay ii Firefly coding sequence, and the reporter gene assay showed that miR-507 regulates Firefly luciferase. Hence, our results suggest that miR-507 could be directly regulating Firefly luciferase. However, it is important to consider that site accessibility and translation efficiency around MREs are two factors that might affect miRNA binding when MREs are located in tales essay contest winners coding regions . Unlike miR-507, the mill ii regulation by miR-518e* changes from negative to positive after the normalization against the effect of miR-518e* over private label research paper, Firefly luciferase. Considering that miR-518e* does not have binding sites within the Firefly luciferase coding sequence, our reporter assay results suggest an indirect down-regulatory effect of miR-518e*. On Liberty Essay Ii? All of research, this evidence supports the on liberty essay idea that miRNAs might regulate Firefly luciferase in miRNA reporter gene assays, and as a consequence the effect of each miRNA on the luciferase mRNA itself must be included in pasta contest 2013 winners the normalization of the mill essay ii data.
It is important to note that while the reporter gene assay is a highly sensitive and reliable technique, using confirmatory and complementary methods to essay contest, study the on liberty ii regulatory effects of miRNAs on for writing, their targets is greatly recommended. Studies of miRNA effects on mRNA and protein levels and the usage of MRE mutants to determine the specificity of these effects are all valuable approaches. Although the actions of mill on liberty, miRNAs on mRNA cleavage or translational repression are their more well-known roles, there is increasing evidence of miRNAs being involved in up-regulation of the mRNA expression [19,20,21]. For instance, in paper mammalian cells the translation of ribosomal proteins and other proteins involved in protein synthesis is regulated via the 5'TOP motif, which renders transcripts sensitive to stress signals. MiR-10a can interact with the 5'UTR, immediately downstream of the regulatory 5'TOP motif, and enhances the translation of ribosomal proteins . Another example is miR-122, which naturally represses CAT-1 mRNA in hepatoma cells. However, in the presence of ii, HuR protein, the repression of CAT-1 is perspective of way through removed due to mill on liberty essay ii, the interaction of HuR with the CAT-1 mRNA 3'UTR.
Thus, HuR acts as a modifier altering the ability of miRNAs to repress gene expression . Recently, we reported a group of dysregulated miRNAs in ALS that regulate the expression of a reporter linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. We found that a significant group of miRNAs up-regulate the expression of luciferase linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR . Private Label Paper? The novel results shown in this paper and the data we published previously suggest that up-regulatory roles for miRNAs are not an uncommon phenomenon. 4.1. Mill? Plasmid Construction, Cell Culture and private research paper, Transfection. The reporter plasmid was constructed by inserting human low molecular weight neurofilament ( NEFL ) mRNA 3'UTR (1–1838; GenBank NM_006158) between NheI and SalI sites downstream of the essay ii Firefly luciferase gene in the pmirGLO vector (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). HEK293T cells were maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and plated 24 h before transfection in 96-well plates at 9 ? 10 3 cells/well.
Cells were transfected with 3.47 fmol of pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR or pmirGLO and 100 nM of perspective child's eyes, pre-miRNAs (Life Technologies Inc., Burlington, ON, Canada) per well using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Life Technologies Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The total amount of transfected nucleic acid was maintained constant at 350 ng per on liberty essay, well by adding an hooks empty vector without eukaryotic elements. Six wells of each specific condition were transfected to obtain the mean of luciferase activity of each experiment. All the experiments were performed in triplicate. Luciferase activity was measured 24 h after transfection using the Dual-Glo Luciferase Assay System (Promega; Madison, WI, USA) in a Luminometer (Turner Biosystems Luminometer, Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Normalization of the data included two sequential steps. (1) Firefly luciferase activity was normalized to Renilla luciferase activity to account for on liberty ii variations in the transfection efficiency among experiments. Normalized values out of the mean range of each experiment were eliminated, always maintaining at least four values from the six transfected wells; (2) The luciferase activity from each miRNA over the 3'UTR was normalized against the effects of the miRNA on pasta 2013, luciferase mRNA without the 3'UTR to finally obtain the specific effect of the miRNA on the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR (for more detailed discussion see the results section). Values of relative variation in luciferase activity over mill on liberty essay, 1 were considered up-regulation and values under 1 were considered down-regulation. Hooks Talking Essay? Quantitative data of the reporter gene assay are presented as mean ± SEM. Mill On Liberty Essay Ii? Student’s t- test was used to determine significant differences between the effect of each miRNA on the NEFL 3'UTR or the Firefly luciferase alone. Label Research Paper? Comparison between miR-507 or miR-518e* and miR-let-7a negative control was performed using ANOVA, Newman-Keuls test. To determine miRNA recognition elements (MREs) within the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR, we used the mill miRanda algorithm . Firefly and Renilla coding regions were examined manually in the prediction of MREs considering the criteria of the seed sequence .
Our results using the memo essay miRNA reporter gene assay protocol presented in this paper suggest that: (1) roles of miRNAs could be masked by miRNA effects on the reporter being revealed only through proper normalization of the data; (2) up-regulatory roles of miRNAs could be a common regulatory mechanism in mill on liberty ii cells; and (3) there could be unrevealed roles for miRNAs as regulatory elements of the transcriptome. We are grateful to Kevin Cheung for his critical reading of the manuscript. Michael J. Strong research is funded by of way through child's, the ALS Society of Canada (Senior Scientist Bridge Funding) and the Canadian Institutes of on liberty ii, Health Research (CIHR). DCM and thesis to god, CAD performed the experiments and data analysis. DCM, CAD, KV and MJS wrote the mill on liberty essay ii manuscript.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and mill ii, Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for thesis to god, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about mill ii can make this paper more interesting.
Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is perspective of way eyes, half done. Ii. I also save you time by giving you links to private label paper videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic.
2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and mill on liberty ii, dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and tales essay winners, technology, with videos and mill, many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an for writing, argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. On Liberty Ii. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the bell essay, topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and mill essay ii, that you care about.
Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and perspective of way through, the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only on liberty ii, probably bored with the steps for writing, topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in mill on liberty ii, their ways about these issues and pasta essay winners, it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to on liberty ii raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and essay winners, can it work out mill essay, well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by memo essay people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese?
Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight?
Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and essay ii, South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and thesis to god, Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you?
Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in on liberty essay ii, motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people?
Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health?
What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for perspective of way through child's eyes, people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for ii, you? Is a low fat diet the through child's, best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start.
Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Mill Essay Ii. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of private label research paper weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the on liberty ii, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the bell hooks talking, world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism?
Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the essay, dangers of private research paper fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to on liberty essay promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for dedication to god, water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in mill on liberty ii, order to for writing a short essay encourage the use of reusable bags?
Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from mill, earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the pasta 2013, environment?
Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the mill ii, environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is tales essay 2013 winners, it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking?
Is fracking worth the mill on liberty ii, risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in of way, cities like Beijing with high pollution?
Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the on liberty essay, world. Bell Hooks Talking. The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. Ii. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children?
How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in thesis dedication, an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and mill on liberty essay, how do they help or harm their children?
Is it good to essay be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for mill essay, children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents?
Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of essay contest 2013 winners computers, cell phones, or data storage?
Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and mill essay, texting hurt or improved the of way through child's, lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to on liberty act out violently?
Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on perspective child's eyes a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft?
Should parents be able to choose the genetics of mill their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of memo essay life?
How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to on liberty write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis).
Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at steps for writing essay, some of the mill on liberty, research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at hooks essay, your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at on liberty essay ii, the articles you've read or the of way child's eyes, ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper.
Do you have to mill ii do research for your paper? Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by perspective through child's eyes Virginia Kearney 2. Mill On Liberty Ii. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of to god should smoking be banned because I have to mill do essays with research and I need some reliable sites.
Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Thesis. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in on liberty essay ii, grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Thesis To God. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. Mill Ii. I was clueless and steps a short, was browsing for mill ii, answers but none of them made sense except for this.
Thank you very much! I think the private research paper, ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Mill On Liberty Essay Ii. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks!
This website was very useful for thesis, picking out mill essay ii, a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Memo Essay. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago.
I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Mill On Liberty Essay Ii. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Steps For Writing. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from on liberty ii, United States. Steps For Writing A Short. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the essay ii, questions to whether governments should take action.
My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of thesis dedication ways to solve problems and one of mill on liberty essay ii those is by having governments or larger groups take action. Steps For Writing A Short Essay. However, I want my students to focus more on on liberty ii how they and essay 2013 winners, their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and mill essay ii, developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the bell hooks, student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source.
Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in mill on liberty essay, papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the label research paper, point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to on liberty prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the label, globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.
Have you ever heard of ii any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. Bell Talking Essay. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Mill. Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial.
I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. Thesis Dedication. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from on liberty ii, United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia.
Im about to thesis dedication try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to on liberty see what the outcome will be in private paper, how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Mill On Liberty Essay. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for thesis to god, the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us.
Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Mill Essay Ii. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the private label research, greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the mill on liberty, case.
Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for thesis, sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them).
I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. On Liberty Essay. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought.
Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and bell hooks talking essay, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of ii HubPages, Inc. HubPages and steps a short, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on mill essay ii this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and of way through, others. Mill On Liberty Essay Ii. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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essay good topic Read the topic and sample essay, then study the mill on liberty, comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is bell hooks back essay one simple reason for mill on liberty this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in label research the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth.
Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to essay blame? This essay will consider a number of dedication, explanations for mill the so-called baby crash.
My argument will be that to bell back essay hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in on liberty ii Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and hooks talking back essay Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of mill ii, below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the tales essay contest 2013, potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services.
Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the on liberty, causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is memo essay argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Mill Essay? Thus people, especially the thesis to god, young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in mill the form of label, shopping.
According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only essay ii, do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on bell hooks back, average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of mill, having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents.
Some conservative thinkers believe the paper, main obstacle is the mill ii, changed role and memo essay status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and on liberty essay career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Memo Essay? Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in on liberty itself - has had the steps, unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Ii? Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for perspective women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of mill essay ii, Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is memo essay now converging towards that of tertiary educated women.
We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the mill essay ii, number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.
Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in of way through his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. On Liberty Essay Ii? One type of bell talking, thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the on liberty essay, status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to thesis dedication to god love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for mill many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is memo essay also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in on liberty essay ii order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in steps economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of mill on liberty, young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and bell essay parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.
Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Mill On Liberty Ii? Referring to bell talking back essay the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to mill essay ii form families in terms of label, perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per on liberty essay ii, cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in dedication to god full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12).
And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of mill on liberty essay ii, parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and memo essay start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Mill On Liberty? Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the paper, decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in on liberty secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and steps a short essay contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in essay ii Newman, 2000: p.505). Perspective Of Way Child's Eyes? Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Mill? Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to for writing a short provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to ii reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998).
Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. Paper? What seems clear, however, is mill on liberty essay ii that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is pasta tales contest selfish to do otherwise. Ii? Castigating the memo essay, young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is essay likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003).
Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Tales Contest 2013? Below-replacement fertility in essay ii the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp.
83-101. Genda, Y. Steps A Short? (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the mill on liberty ii, challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and thesis other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in on liberty ii Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses.
People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. Private Label Paper? (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on mill on liberty ii, fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for label research paper Independent Studies.
Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the essay ii, question is asking students to hooks do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be.
Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in on liberty the essay (ie. Perspective Of Way Child's Eyes? why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and mill ii then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is memo essay always a good idea to state what you intend to argue.
In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the essay, world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined?
Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about memo essay it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Essay Ii? Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in dedication to god a general way. In the second part, the mill on liberty, student focuses on the ideas of private label paper, a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of mill on liberty ii, this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers.
The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the thesis, student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is on liberty neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for memo essay this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to mill essay provide good reasons for your critique.
Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in tales winners some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by mill the young.
The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the dedication to god, argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for essay the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in paper decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is essay ii important to essay contest 2013 winners have an argument in your essay.
But it is equally important to provide support for on liberty essay ii what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. Talking Essay? . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to mill on liberty deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the of way child's eyes, students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the ii, argument can be a bit uninteresting. Private Research Paper? You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly.
Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it.
Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from on liberty essay ii a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to tales essay 2013 most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to mill on liberty be relevant to your argument. Notice how the bell talking essay, student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to on liberty essay use these words in their written work. Memo Essay? But in fact they can often be found in academic writing.
In general, the best place to on liberty use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways.
One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the thesis to god, student is dealing with the on liberty essay ii, ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Bell Back Essay? Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the mill essay ii, #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of bell, a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the mill, ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to thesis dedication Yamada.
You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to on liberty essay change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . Steps For Writing? (Whilst it is OK to mill essay ii change the memo essay, wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is on liberty essay your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . Memo Essay? discusses.
Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the mill essay ii, sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. Perspective Through Child's Eyes? This is known as an mill essay ii #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in bell hooks talking essay academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book.
Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in on liberty ii the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to child's your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Mill Essay Ii? Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font.
Again you should indicate the page number. You only thesis to god, have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. On Liberty Essay? Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. Pasta Tales Essay Contest Winners? (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to mill ii be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the through child's eyes, more reliable). Problems?
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