Causes of childhood obesity thesis
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Title: A Lurking Epidemic Topic: Childhood obesity Purpose: To discuss the causes of childhood obesity and ways to prevent it.
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mark messier essay Many sources (including former versions of this webpage) say Charles Messier grew up in humble conditions, a rumor probably going back to incomplete remarks in Delambre's short biography (Delambre 1827). Causes Thesis. Actually, his family lived in essay service law considerable wealth (Philbert 2000): Nicolas Messier served in the administration of the Princes of causes obesity Salm, including services in court, and resided in essay writing service a beautiful home in Badonviller. Six of causes of childhood his brothers and sisters died at young age, not unusual at that time: the twins Nicolas and essay impact society Anne (Marie), b. 1716; Anne (b. Causes Of Childhood. 1719), Barbe (1723-1724), Nicolas (b. 1725) and essay Joseph (1728.1729). Charles Messier knew only 5 of his brothers and sisters: Three brothers were older than he was, namely Hyacinthe (1717-1791), Claude (b. 1725) and causes obesity thesis Nicolas-François (b. 1726), while brother Joseph (1732-1804) and sister Barbe (1734-1787) were younger. In 1741, when Charles was 11, the Messier family suffered from the untimely death of his father. At that time, the oldest brother, Hyacinthe, then at age 24, took over the role of the man in the house.
Hyacinthe had worked with a curator in Nancy and corruption had returned to Badonviller in 1740, to take a position in the administration of the causes of childhood obesity Princes of about why i Salm. Also about that time, the young Charles suffered from an accident: While playing turbulently, he was falling out of a window of the of childhood obesity Messiers' house and breaking a leg on the level of the thigh, but he was found and taken care by a farmer of his hometown, who looked after him and assured complete recovery. By Donald Asher. Charles was taken from school, and Hyacinthe took care of his education, and trained him for eight years for administrative and methodic work. During that time, he developed a sense for precise observing and a feeling for causes of childhood, fine details, which would become important in analasys essay his later career. Charles got interested in astronomy in younger years, and seems to have liked observing the stars and the phenomena in the night sky in very early years. When he was 14 years old, a great 6-tailed comet appeared (discovered by of childhood Klinkenberg and closer studied by De Chéseaux). His interest was further stimulated by an annular Solar eclipse which was visible (as partial eclipse) from his hometown on July 25, 1748.
In 1751, that part of present-day France was reorganized, and the Princes of Salm retracted from the control of means to me essay Badonviller. Of Childhood Obesity Thesis. Hyacinthe Messier decided to stay loyal to the Princes of Salm, and therefore to leave Badonviller and establish himself at essay corruption, Senones. For Charles, now at 21 years of causes thesis age, time had come to impact corruption look for causes obesity, work. Therefore, a friend of the family, the about why i like my school Abbé Thélosen, found two opportunities for him to take up a job in Paris: one with the thesis curator of essay a palace, the other with an astronomer. After some consultations with friends, Hyacinthe accepted for him the second position, that with the causes obesity astronomer, because it promised more advantages and prospects. Charles Messier left Badonviller on September 23, 1751, and went to admissions by donald Paris, where he arrived on causes obesity thesis, October 2. He was employed by the astronomer of the Navy, Joseph Nicolas Delisle (1688-1768), because of his fine hand-writing. Delisle and analasys essay his wife, a couple in their sixties without own childs, gave Messier a new home within their appartment, situated in the Collége Royal de France (Royal College of France). Messier's first job was copying a large map of China; for that purpose, large space was needed, which Delisle assigned him in a long, unheated hall in the Royal College; Delambre (1827) commented that this was just appropriate for a future observational astronomer.
Besides these activities, he got introduced into Delisle's observatory and instructed in using its instruments by thesis Delisle's secretary and assistant, Libour. This man also instructed him to keep careful records of all his observations. Delisle's observatory had been established in 1748, after Delisle's return from asher, Russia a year before, on a tower of Hôtel de Clugny (later Hôtel de Cluny), a residence constructed in 1480, on causes of childhood thesis, the ruins of Roman thermes from the 4th century, as the temporary Paris residence for the abbots of the essay my school Clugny order and their guests. In the 18th century, it was rented to the administration of the Royal Navy. Charles Messier's first documented observation was that of the causes obesity Mercury transit of May 6, 1753. Delisle himself introduced him into elementary astronomy and convinced him of the usefulness of measuring exact positions of all observations -- without doubt one of the analasys essay most important preliminaries for of childhood, the success of his catalog. In 1754, he was regularly employed as a Depot Clerk of the Navy.
Somewhen in 1757, Charles Messier started looking for comet Halley. His first reported observation of thesis funding M32, a companion of the Andromeda Galaxy, took place in the same year 1757; he must also have seen the Great Nebula M31 latest on this occasion. Comet Halley was expected to return in 1758, which, at that time, was no more than a scientific hypothesis. Delisle himself had calculated an apparent path where he expected comet Halley to appear, and Messier created a fine star chart of causes this path. Unfortunately, there was a mistake in what family to me Delisle's calculations, so that Messier always looked at the wrong positions. However, he discovered another comet on August 14, 1758, which he followed and causes of childhood thesis carefully observed with telescopes to November 2, 1758; this comet (C/1758 K1 De la Nux) had been discovered earlier, on essay impact corruption society, May 26, 1758, by De la Nux. During these observations, he discovered another comet-like patch in Taurus on August 28, 1758. Causes Obesity. Evidently, it turned out that this patch was not moving, and was thus indeed not a comet, but a nebula. He measured its position on September 12, 1758, and it later became the first entry in his famous catalog, Messier 1 or M1, -- this object later turned out to be one of the most interesting objects in the sky, the like my school remnant of the supernova 1054, now commonly called the Crab Nebula. It was also this first discovery of a comet-like nebula which triggered Messier to both looking for comets with telescopes, thus inventing comet hunting, a new discipline of astronomy in these days, and to compile his catalog of nebulous objects which might be taken for comets. Comet Halley was finally discovered by the German amateur astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch (1723-1788) in the Chrismas night (December 25-26) of 1758.
Messier independently found it on January 21, 1759, about causes of childhood obesity thesis 4 weeks later, when he finally doubted the correctness of Delisle's path. Delisle however did not believe in essay corruption this fault, advised him to continue observing, and refused to announce his discovery. Messier as loyal employee stated: I was a loyal servant of M. Delisle, I lived with him in his house, and I conformed with his command. When Delisle finally announced the discovery on April 1, 1759, it was not believed by the other French astronomers (perhaps they took it as an April Fool's joke). Perhaps this disappointment and frustration was even more stimulating to causes thesis the 28-year old observer, so that he devoted his professional life to essays by donald comet hunting. This devotion suffered from causes obesity, a further frustration (and perhaps got further emphasized) when Delisle refused to publish a further comet discovery by why i like Messier in early 1760. In the causes following, Delisle changed attitude, supported Messier, and let him do his own observational work; also, it seems that because of his age, he more and more retracted from astronomical work. Messier recorded his second nebula, M2, previously discovered by Jean-Dominique Maraldi (1709-1788), and plotted it on family means essay, a chart showing Comet Halley's track. He observed the transit of Venus of June 6, 1761, and the appearance Saturn's rings. He observed Comet 1762 Klinkenberg from May to July, 1762, and on September 28, 1763, he discovered Comet 1763 (Messier), and the next one, Comet 1764 Messier, on January 3, 1764 (this one was as bright as 3.0 mag when discovered, according to Don Machholz). A first hope to obesity thesis enter the French Académie Royale des Sciences [Royal Academy of Sciences] in 1763 did not come true, a considerable disappointment for analasys essay, Charles Messier.
With the discovery of causes obesity thesis a further nebula, his third object (globular cluster M3) and admissions essays by donald his first original discovery, it seems that he undertook a serious scan of the causes obesity thesis skies for these objects, as they could frequently fool comet discoverers. Alternatively, it may be that he decided to essay service undertake this endeavor due to other reasons, and M3 was his first discovery in the course of doing so: It was at that time that Le Gentil's memoir on nebulae was going to be printed (finally, in 1765), and it may well be that Messier had knowlegde and was perhaps influenced by this. Of Childhood Thesis. Within his search for family, nebulae, Charles Messier both undertook own scans, leading to thesis 19 original Messier discoveries during that year, and means to me essay used all the catalogs compiled previously by other astronomers he had access to: Edmond Halley's list of 6 objects, the catalog of William Derham, who chiefly had extracted from Hevelius' star catalog, Prodomus Astronomiae , which was available in a French translation by Pierre de Maupertuis, and Nicolas Lacaille's Catalog of Southern Nebulae of 1755, as well as lists of Maraldi and Le Gentil, with some references to causes thesis (but very probably not the list of) De Chéseaux, probably from Le Gentil. He cataloged the objects M3--M40 this year, and looked for essay about why i, several non-existent nebulae from the older catalogs (certainly without success, but this explains why the double star M40 entered his catalog). At that time, Messier was in causes of childhood obesity thesis vivid correspondence with astronomers and other academicians in Britain, Germany, and Russia.
His Russian correspondent, Frederick La Harpe, was exile from graduate admissions essays, Swiss and member of the Academy of sciences. Moreover, on May 21, 1764, Charles Messier was selected as a member of the Academy of causes thesis Harlem (The Netherlands), and on December 6, 1764, was made a foreign member of the Royal Society in London. Essay Law. In 1765, memberships in the Academy of Auxerre and the Institute of Bologne followed. Early in 1765, he found the star cluster M41. Thesis. In 1765, Delisle eventually retired, and Charles Messier continued observing from the Hôtel de Cluny observatory; his appointment as Astronomer of the Navy occurred considerably later, though: No earlier than 1771! On March 8, 1766, he discovered a new comet, and co-discovered one more on April 8 of that year. In 1767, Messier, the essay writing long-term Depot Clerk and later Astronomer of the Navy, took part in the only causes thesis naval journey in his life, in order to test and regulate some new marine chronometers, constructed by J. Le Roy. Therefore, he went on the ship L'Aurore for a 3 and a half-month voyage in the Baltic, together with his colleague Alexander-Guy Pingré (1711-1796). Essay Writing Law. Messier did the astronomical observations and Pingré the necessary calculations. During his absense from May 12 to causes of childhood obesity thesis September 1, 1767, Lalande continued the observing program at Cluny.
In early 1769, Messier must have decided to publish a first version of essay about like my school his catalog, and to enlarge the number of objects, cataloged the well known objects M42--M45 (Orion Nebula, Praesepe, and the Pleiades) on March 4, 1769. On August 8, 1769, Messier discovered a new comet (1769 Messier, the Great Comet of that year). He sent a description and a map of this comet's discovery to the King of Prussia, who was so impressed that under his influence, Messier was made a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences on September 14, 1769; in causes thesis April of the same year, he had already been selected as a member of the essay writing service law Royal Academy of Sweden in Stockholm. Finally, in causes of childhood obesity thesis 1770, he was elected into the Paris Académie Royale des Sciences , which he entered on graduate admissions asher, June 30. This occurred about 2 weeks after he had discovered another comet, on June 14, which became known as Comet Lexell; unusually, this comet was not named for its discoverer, Charles Messier, but for the calculator of its orbit, Anders Lexell, a Finnish astronomer and mathematician working at causes of childhood obesity thesis, St. Petersburg Observatory. The same year, on November 26, 1770, Charles Messier, aged 40, married Marie-Françoise de Vermauchampt (37). They had known each other from viewing for at least about funding 15 years, when Charles Messier had to do in the College de France. On January 10, 1771, Messier independently co-discovered the Great Comet of that year. On February 16, 1771 he presented the first version of his Catalog of Nebulae and of childhood obesity thesis Clusters of Stars, with the first 45 objects, to the Paris Academy of Sciences. This was his very first memoir presented to the Academy, followed by a large number of others.
Three nights after this presentation, he measured four more nebulous objects, M46--M49. For two of essays by donald them, however, M47 and M48, he didn't proceed with the usual care, and did mistakes in of childhood obesity thesis the reduction of analasys essay positional data, so that they were missed until their 20th century identification. M49 was moreover the first Virgo Cluster galaxy discovered. On April 1, he discovered Comet 1771 Messier, his 13th comet in his own counting, his 12th independent and his 7th original discovery. Later this year, on June 7, Messier discovered M62, but only causes of childhood obesity measured an approximate position, so he included this Very Fine Nebula not before 1779. In the same year of 1771, on September 30, Charles Messier was finally officially made the Astronomer of the Navy by the Minister of the thesis Navy, de Boines, and granted a regular salary of 1700 francs annually (this was raised again in 1774 to 2000 francs). Also this year. in March, 1771, the portrait of Charles Messier displayed at the top of this page has been created by Desportes, together with a portrait of Madame Messier. On October 31, 1771, Messier and his wife moved from his and formerly Delisle's appartment in the Collége de France into a lodging within the Hôtel de Clugny, where the causes Observatory of the Navy was situated. On March 15, 1772, Madame Messier gave birth to a son, who was christened Antoine-Charles. Following the birth, both Madame Messier and the small boy died within 11 days, Madame Messier on March 23, and Antoine-Charles on writing service, March 26, 1772. A slightly malicious legend is of childhood obesity thesis reported by Jean-François de Laharpe, written in 1801, that the death of Messier's wife had prevented the analasys essay discovery of another comet which would have been his thirteenth, and of childhood obesity thesis Messier was more desperate because of the lost discovery than of the death of essay service his wife (especially as this comet was discovered by Montaigne, whom he didn't like).
However, this legend doesn't stand serious criticism: Montaigne had already discovered this one on March 8, a week before Messier's son had been born, and whatever counting is appointed, this was not Messier's thirteenth comet (according to Messier's own counting, as well as a published memoir, and mentioned above, his 13th comet had already appeared in causes of childhood obesity thesis 1771). Anyway, Messier observed this comet March 26 - April 3, 1772. On April 5, 1772, he added another cluster to graduate admissions essays by donald asher his list, M50. Later that year, he took a 3-months vacations in of childhood thesis Lorraine, from September to November 1772. That year, he was also elected a member of the Academy of Brussels (Belgium) and the Royal Academy of Hungary. Perhaps partly because of essay law these private experiences, Nebula observation was apparently reduced by Charles Messier in the years following: On August 10, 1773, he discovered the second bright companion of the Andromeda Nebula, M110, but due to causes of childhood obesity unknown reason did not catalog it. He discovered one more comet on thesis funding princeton, October 13, 1773; this one was found when it was just visible to the naked eye (Glyn Jones), or at of childhood thesis, 4.5 mag (Machholz). He found two more objects (M51 and M52) in 1774, and princeton observed Comet 1774 Montaigne. Also in the year 1774, Pierre Méchain was introduced to causes of childhood obesity thesis Messier by Jerôme de Lalande, the leading French astronomer at that time; it may well be (according to a conjecture of essay about why i like Owen Gingerich) that he had met Messier before this time.
Until 1777, Messier did not discover another nebula, nor another comet. In February that year, Messier cataloged M53 (this globular had been discovered two years earlier by Johann Elert Bode). He also contributed to the dubious hypothesis of a planet inside Mercury's orbit, when he reported several small bodies crossing the Sun's disk on June 17, 1777. He added that the objects observed might be atmospheric phenomena, but more probably small meteorites. Causes Of Childhood Obesity. On La Harpe's recommendation, Messier was named to the Academy of St.
Petersburg in Russia on January 9, 1777. In 1778 Messier found two more nebulae, the original discovery M54, as well as M55 which had been reported by Lacaille, and which Messier had looked for in vain in 1764. In 1779, Messier co-discovered Comet 1779 Bode on January 19, 13 days after its original sighting by service Bode on of childhood thesis, January 6. Following this comet, until May 19, he observed six objects (M56--M61). Analasys Essay. Messier discovered M56 and M57 in of childhood Janary 1779. There was a modest discovery outburst when the comet passed Virgo and funding the Virgo cluster of Galaxies, and causes of childhood was observed by Messier, Johann Gottfried Koehler from Dresden, and Barnabus Oriani in Milan. Thus Koehler discovered M59 and analasys essay M60 on thesis, April 11, 1779, but overlooked M58 which was discovered by Messier when he independently also found the other two on April 15. Graduate Asher. On May 5, Koehler also found three othersomewhat nebulous stars in the area of the northern shoulder of Virgo, but because of lack of more detail, these cannot be identified with certainty; Wolfgang Steinicke speculates these may be M84, M86, and M87.
Oriani was the first to identify M61 on May 5, 1779; Messier found it the of childhood obesity thesis same day but took it for the comet on May 5, 6, and 11 -- he realized its nature as a nebula finally on May 11. When measuring the stars along the comet's track, Messier made an accidental prediscovery observation of essay why i my school asteroid (2) Pallas, the first known record of an asteroid obeservation! This fact was brought to light only in 2012 by Belgian astronomer and historian René Bourtembourg (Bourtembourg 2012). Messier eventually got a good position for causes of childhood thesis, M62 which he had longly discovered in 1771. M63 was the first discovery of princeton Méchain (on June 14, 1779), who had definitely started observing about that time, and like Messier focussed on of childhood thesis, comet searching and observing. In January 1780, Messier found M64 which had been discovered previously, in 1779, independently by Edward Pigott and by Johann Elert Bode. Owen Gingerich reports that Messier, by essay why i my school chance, found M65 and M66, in March 1780. Admiral Smyth, and later some other authors probably following him, has assigned these two objects to Pierre Méchain, most probably in error, as Messier didn't acknowledge an earlier discovery, unlike his practise on all such occasions that actually occurred.
Although a comet had passed between these galaxies in 1773, Messier had overlooked them, probably because the comet had outshined them; perhaps this statement caused Smyth to conjecture that not Messier, but Méchain may have found them first. Also, Messier did not find a 3rd galaxy, NGC 3628, of visual magnitude 9.5 (but less surface brightness than the other two), which forms a conspicuous triangular group with them: This gives a hint on the modest power of his telescopes. In April 1780, he discovered two further objects, M67 and M68, and thus completed his observations for a second version of the catalog. Of Childhood Thesis. This version was containing the objects up to M68, published 1780 in the French almanac, Connoissance des Temps , for 1783. M67 had been discovered earlier by Köhler, before 1779, while M68 was again subject to a misassignment to Méchain by Admiral Smyth. In May, 1780, Messier became a member of the Literary Society of Upsala, Sweden. Starting in late August 1780, Messier, together with Méchain, took a vigorous effort to catalog more nebulae. Messier's first two new discoveries, M69 and M70, just made it to an appendix to the Connoissance des Temps for 1783. By the end of the why i my school year 1780, Messier had collected the entries up to M79, and discovered a new comet (1780 I Messier, on October 27), shortly after having missed another one, 1780II Montaigne-Olbers.
By April 1781, the list of nebulae and star cluster had increased to of childhood obesity 100 objects. Hastily, three more objects observed by Pierre Méchain (M101--M103) were added without personal validation, to get the what means essay catalog ready for its final publication in of childhood obesity the Connoissance des Temps for 1784 (published 1781). Very shortly after publication, on May 11, 1781, Messier added M104 to his personal copy of the catalog, as well as positions for the hitherto undetermined objects M102 and M103. A look to Messier's personal matters shows that he had listed two more nebulae, discovered by Méchain and mentioned in the catalog with M97, which are now known as M108 and M109. Society. M109 deserves a closer look, as its identification is somewhat ambigous: Messier's coordinates point to two closely neighbored objects: The Declination coincides with NGC 3992 which had been identified as M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1953, its Right Ascension with that of NGC 3953 - the of childhood thesis object originally discovered by graduate admissions asher Pierre Méchain and here referred to as M109B, a fact uncovered only in 2006 by Henk Bril; see our discussion on this topic. One of Méchain's discoveries of March 1781, M105, had been overlooked and missed the final catalog. Causes Of Childhood Thesis. Méchain discovered a further nebulous object, now M106, in essays asher July. Méchain also discovered his first two comets in 1781, on June 28 and causes October 9.
Meanwhile, Friedrich Wilhelm (William) Herschel, who was at that time astronomer (observer and telescope maker) and organist at what means essay, Bath, England, had discovered planet Uranus on March 13. Messier got the note on thesis, April 14, 1781, one day after his last observing session for compiling his catalog, and immediately started observing it. He wrote to Herschel: It does you the more honor as nothing could be more difficult than to recognize it and I cannot concieve how you were able to return several times to society this star or comet as it was necessary to causes obesity observe it several days in succession to perceive that it had motion, since it had none of the usual characters of a comet. He passed his observations to the French president de Saron, who was a good mathematician, and was among the first to calculate that Uranus was a planet and not a comet, since its perihelion was too great (this result was obtained on princeton, May 8, 1781). Others, namely Boscovich, Lexell, Lalande and Méchain, obtained the causes of childhood obesity same result, and confirmed that Uranus was orbiting the sun beyond Saturn's orbit. It may well be that this most exciting discovery has prevented him from further checks to clear up some of the mysteries around the latest objects in his catalog. Later this year, on writing law, November 6, Messier's work was unfortunately interrupted by an awful accident, when he fell into the ice cellar about 25 feet deep. He was severely injured, and causes thesis it took more than a year for him to recover; he was up not until November 9, 1782. In the meantime, in April 1782, Méchain had discovered another nebula, which finally became the latest discovered Messier object, M107. Moreover, in August 1782, stimulated by Messier's catalog, William Herschel, assisted by his sister Caroline, began to observe deepsky objects. Herschel had received a copy on December 7, 1781, from analasys essay, his friend, Dr.
William Watson, which had been sent to them by Alexander Aubert. On September 7, 1782, William Herschel did his first original discovery of a deepsky object, the Saturn Nebula (NGC 7009), and in October 1783, after some research of efficient observing techniques, he began his extensive deep-sky survey of the sky visible from England (i.e., the Northern sky), and cataloged 1000 deep-sky objects until 1786, and a total of over 2500 until 1802 (however, some of them don't exist, and some others had been discovered earlier). Three days after his recovery on November 9, 1782, Charles Messier observed a Mercury transit on November 12, 1782. On May 6, 1783, Pierre Méchain wrote an important letter to of childhood Bernoulli of the essay service law Berlin academy, which was published by Bode in obesity the Astronomisches Jahrbuch for 1786, together with a translation of the Messier catalog. In this letter, among others, he communicated the last three objects discovered by him (now M105-M107), as well as his above-mentioned discoveries of M104, M108, and M109B. He also disclaimed the discovery of M102, thereby initiating a still open controversy on the identification of this object (i.e., if it duplicates M101 as Méchain claims, or may be identified with NGC 5866 which matches his description and - up to a reconstructable error in data reduction - Messier's handwritten position).
Messier resumed his assiduous observing activities as before, again concentrating on comets. He seems to have used his personal copy of his catalog also for a number of years, but apparently did not invest great effort in essays by donald further attempts to find new nebulous objects, and not much work to improve the catalog further. This is perhaps because he knew of Herschel's survey, and as he couldn't compete in of childhood obesity thesis instrumentation, he may have lost interest: He probably was aware that future comet hunters could use Herschel's compilation also. However, there are a number of notable exceptions: His measurements of essay corruption society stars in the open star clusters Praesepe (M44) and obesity the Pleiades (M45) in 1785, 1790, and 1796, a number of observations of about 1790 of nebulae and clusters marked by hand in his personal copy of the about catalog, his corrected positions of 1790 for the Andromeda Nebula (M31) and its companion M32, as well as his 1795 investigations and causes of childhood obesity thesis drawing of the Andromeda Nebula (M31) and both its satellites M32 and M110. Messier himself puts it on the large number of comets that appeared since about 1785 that did not permit much time for other observational activities. The Messier catalog was finally corrected by identifying the 4 missing objects (or at least three of them), and brought into its current state by adding the late discoveries of analasys essay Méchain, M104--M109, plus the uncataloged discovery M110, only in the 20th century. Messier's comet search led to a further success on thesis, January 7, 1785, when he discovered comet 1785 I Messier-Méchain, when it was about service law 6.5 magnitudes bright; this one was visible for about 5 weeks. Méchain discovered another comet on causes thesis, March 11, 1785, and a further one on corruption, January 17, 1786; this was the first apparition of comet Encke, the causes thesis comet with the graduate essays by donald asher shortest known orbital period of only about 3.3 years. In 1785, Pierre Méchain became principal editor of the Connoissance des Temps . Of Childhood Obesity. He served on this post until 1792, and was responsible for the publication of the service Connoissance des Temps for 1788 to that for 1794. Some sources say that Messier was also appointed as associate editor of this publication in the same year, and hold this post for five years until 1790, but the present author could not yet find evidence to confirm this statement. Both astronomers continued their successful comet search: Messier discovered a new one on November 26, 1788, while Méchain found a further comet on April 10, 1787, and of childhood thesis discovered comet Tuttle when it appeared in thesis funding princeton 1790, on January 9. Further academic memberships came for the Academy of Sciences of Dublin (1784), the obesity thesis Académy de Stanislav, Nancy, Lorraine (1785), and the Academy of Vergara, Spain (1788).
Meanwhile, the French Revolution had begun with the graduate admissions by donald asher storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. Causes Of Childhood Thesis. These events may have intercepted attempts by Charles Messier to publish an updated version of his catalog: In his personal copy, he added notes on observaitons of nebulae and clusters in about 1790. Four years later, this culminated in the Year of thesis princeton Terror in France, 1793-1794. Causes Of Childhood Obesity. That year, the French King Louis XVI was guillotined on January 21, and Messier's friend, ex-president de Saron, on April 20, 1794, shortly after he had calculated the orbit of Messier's comet discovered on September 27, 1793, and Messier could notify him secretly that he had found the comet on thesis funding princeton, the calculated path. The terrorism ended when finally Robbespierre himself was guillotined on of childhood obesity, July 27, 1794. Graduate Essays Asher. During that time, Messier lost his salaries and pension, and had to loan oil for of childhood, his lamp from Lalande. Méchain was in Spain, employed in surveying the meridian, where he discovered another comet in January, 1793, but his family lost their estate during this year. He left to Italy, and what family essay returned to Paris in 1795.
Together with Messier, he entered the obesity new National Institute of Sciences and Arts , successor of the Academy of Sciences . What Family To Me. As one of four astronomers, Méchain was also selected for the Bureau of Longitudes ; Messier followed him into this organization in June, 1796, after J.D. Cassini (Cassini IV) decided to leave. Messier discovered another comet on April 12, 1798. At that time, he apparently felt the need to comment on his intention for compiling his catalog. Thesis. In the Connaissance des Tems for the year IX (of the French republic, i.e., 1800/1801), which was published 1998, he lined out: What caused me to undertake the catalog was the nebula I discovered above the southern horn of Taurus on analasys essay, September 12, 1758, whilst observing the causes of childhood thesis comet of that year. This nebula had such a resemblance to about a comet in its form and brightness that I endeavored to find others, so that astronomers would no more confuse these same nebulae with comets just beginning to appear.
I observed further with suitable refractors for the discovery of comets, and this is the purpose I had in mind in compiling the catalog. After me, the celebrated Herschel published a catalog of 2000 which he has observed. This unveiling the heavens, made with instruments of great aperture, does not help in the perusal of the sky for faint comets. Thus my object is different from his, and I need only nebulae visible in a telescope of two feet [focal length]. Since the publication of my catalog, I have observed still others: I will publish them in the future in the order of right ascension for the purpose of making them more easy to recognise and for those searching for comets to have less uncertainty. As it came out, Messier never carried out this plan. In 1801, when the first asteroid, Ceres, had just been discovered by Piazzi on January 1, Charles Messier, now at an age of 71 (shown at causes of childhood obesity thesis, about this time in this image), took part in about why i like my school an observing project of occultations of the mag 1 star Spica (Alpha Virginis) by the Moon, on of childhood, March 30 and analasys essay May 24.
Charles Messier did his last score in comet discovery on July 12, 1801, when he independently co-discovered Comet 1801 Pons; this brought the number of his comet discoveries to obesity 20, 13 being original and 7 independent co-discoveries. He did some observations of the newly discovered planets (asteroids) of Piazzi (Ceres) and of Olbers (Pallas). Pierre Méchain lately became director of the Paris Observatory, a post he had for several years. But as he had been worrying about impact corruption society some latitude determinations in his longitude survey, he finally got Napoleon's permission to extend this survey to the Balearic Islands. He left Paris in 1803. After completing parts of this work, he caught yellow fever and died in Castillion de Plaza, Spain, on September 20, 1804. In his older days, Charles Messier finally came to a certain portion of honor when Napoleon himself, in 1806, presented him the Cross of the Legion of causes of childhood obesity Honor. Impact Society. In turn, the old man Messier ruined much of of childhood his scientific reputation by an elaborated memoir, devoting the thesis princeton great comet of obesity thesis 1769 to Napoleon, who had been born that year; thus he became probably the analasys essay last serious scientist who claimed that comets announce events on earth, or as Admiral Smyth put it: 'The last comet put astrologically before the public by an orthodox astronomer'.
In the time following, Messier did less and of childhood obesity thesis less observing, although he didn't completely cease, mainly because he suffered from decreasing eyesight. Thus he was unable to essay writing law determine positions for the two comets of 1805 and obesity that of graduate admissions essays by donald 1806. His observatory grew into worse and worse state, with no funds to repair. The last comet Messier reports to have seen and observed, the positions measured with the help of of childhood obesity thesis other observers, was the Great Comet of analasys essay 1807. His last memoir, presented to the National Institute of of childhood obesity France, similar to his first of analasys essay 1771, the first version of the thesis Catalog of Nebulae and Star Clusters, was again a considerably important memoir on asher, nebulae: his presentation of his 1795 observations and a drawing of the Andromeda Nebula M31, together with its companions M32 and M110. In 1815, Messier suffered a stroke which left him partially paralyzed.
After partial recovery, he attended one or two more academy meetings, but his everyday life became more and more difficult. Causes Of Childhood Obesity Thesis. In the night of April 11-12, 1817, Charles Messier passed away in his 87th year, in his home in Paris. He was buried on April 14 on the cemetry of Père Lachaise in Paris. Charles Messier has been honored lately by essay the astronomical community by naming a Moon Crater (or even two) after him, situated on Mare Fecunditatis. Asteroid 7359, discovered on January 16, 1996 by of childhood thesis M. Tichy at funding, Klet Observatory, and provisionally designated 1996 BH, was named Messier; it had already been observed previously, and designated 1978 WR14 and 1989 WT1. Already during his lifetime, in causes thesis 1775, Messier's French fellow astronomer Jerôme de Lalande had proposed to analasys essay name a constellation after him: Custos Messium . Thesis. This constellation was formed from bordering stars of Cepheus, Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis. However, it was very short-lived and analasys essay is longly extinct now. Anyway, the obesity most obvious honor is writing service certainly the causes thesis still common naming of the Deep Sky Objects in analasys essay his catalog after him, with their Messier number, e.g.
Messier 42 or M42 for the Orion Nebula, or M31 for the Andromeda Galaxy. Jean-Paul Philbert, 2000. Charles Messier. Le furet des cometes. Editions Pierron, 2 rue Gutenberg, 57206 Sarreguemines, France. In French. Special thanks to Jean-Paul for contributing data on Charles Messier's private life, in particular on of childhood, Madame Messier. Owen Gingerich: Messier and His Catalog.
Sky Telescope, August and September, 1953. Reprinted in Mallas' and essay Kreimer's Messier Album . Kenneth Glyn Jones: Messier's Nebulae and causes thesis Star Clusters . Faber Faber, 1968; 2nd revised edition Cambridge University Press, 1991. Don Machholz: The Messier Marathon Observer's Guide. Make Wood Products, P.O.Box 1716, Colfax, CA 95713 (USA). 1994. Second edition: The Observing Guide to the Messier Marathon. A Handbook and Atlas. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, 1827. Histoire de l'Astronomie au dix-huitièmme siècle [History of Astronomy in the Eighteenth Century]. Bachelier (Successor of Mme. Ve. Courcier), Paris, pp. xxxix and analasys essay 767-774. Causes Of Childhood Obesity Thesis. René Bourtembourg, 2012. Messier's Missed Discovery of Pallas in April 1779. Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 209-214 (May 2012) [ADS: 2012JHA.
43..209B] More online stuff on Charles Messier's life. Timeline of Charles Messier's life (part of our database) Account of Messier's Deepsky Observations (part of analasys essay our database) Charles Messier's Comet Discoveries Charles Messier images, NGC/IC observers page Some Charles Messier info, Yann Pothier Shorter biography of Charles Messier The Astronomical Picture of the Day page for June 26, 1996 was devoted to causes of childhood obesity Charles Messier's birthday (his 266th). Dead Link! Short biography of Charles Messier at JPL TIE. Analasys Essay. Dead Link!
Charles Messier: the Man and his Catalog , by Dave Mitsky . Biography provided by the Astronomical Society of Harrisburg, located at the Museum of Scientific Discoveries, Strawberry Square, Harrisburg, PA. Charles Messier biography, Mark Miller.
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CHILDHOOD OBESITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES PhD
Understanding Your Lab Test Results. Published March 11, 2014 by Judith Grout. Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires an enormous amount of self-care and that can affect many parts of the of childhood thesis, body. Because of this, people who have diabetes are generally advised to about why i my school, visit their doctors multiple times a year and also to see various specialists (such as endocrinologists, podiatrists, and eye doctors) periodically to of childhood obesity thesis, screen for potential problems and treat any complications that arise. Along with blood pressure readings and inspection of the graduate by donald, feet and eyes, there are a number of laboratory tests recommended by the American Diabetes Association. These tests are used to track blood glucose control, kidney function, cardiovascular health, and other areas of health. Although you certainly can’t and won’t be expected to analyze the causes obesity thesis, lab report when your test results come back, knowing a little bit about essay, what your report says can be a way for you to causes, more fully understand and take charge of your health. What Means To Me Essay! If it isn’t already your doctor’s regular practice to give you copies of your lab reports, ask for a copy the next time you have lab tests done. Use the of childhood, information in this article to learn more about what lab reports show, and discuss your results with your doctor to learn what your results mean with regards to graduate essays, your health. All lab reports share certain standard features, regardless of the test(s) they show.
A Federal law, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, regulates all aspects of clinical laboratory testing. It states exactly what information must be included in of childhood obesity thesis, your lab test report. Some of the standard features include the admissions essays, following: • Your name and a unique identification number, which may be either your birth date or a medical record number assigned to you by the lab. • The name and address of the lab that tested your blood, urine, or tissue samples. Of Childhood Obesity! This lab may be part of a hospital or clinic, or it may be a commercial reference laboratory. • The names of essay about my school, all authorized persons (such as your doctor) who ordered the test(s) and received the causes thesis, results. • Specimen type, which may be blood, urine, or a particular type of tissue. If different specimens were used for the same basic type of test (such as testing both blood and urine for graduate by donald, glucose), the sample used for thesis, each test is indicated. • A list of all tests performed on each sample. • Results, which may be expressed as numbers or by the designation of positive or negative.
Sometimes both numbers and words may be used to essay impact corruption society, describe the of childhood thesis, outcome, such as “100,000 colonies/cc Escherichia coli.” In this example, the symbol for to me, “greater than” is used in describing the number of bacterial colonies per cubic centimeter. • Abnormal or out-of-range results. These are highlighted or shown in bold print to draw immediate attention. • Critical results. These highly abnormal results must be reported immediately to your doctor, and the report will include the date and time your doctor was notified. • The unit of measurement for each test result. This unit may differ from one lab to another; for example, one lab might give a result in milligrams per deciliter while another gives it in millimoles per mole (a mole is a unit widely used in chemistry). But each lab report will also include a reference range in the same unit as each result to help put the of childhood, number in context. • Reference ranges, or numbers provided to show how your results compare with those of the corruption society, “normal” population.
The units used to express these ranges, as well as the numbers themselves, will depend on of childhood the specific methods and instruments that the lab uses. (To learn about some terms that are commonly encountered on lab test reports, click here.) Read your printed report carefully, taking note of any result that is analasys essay outside the reference range. If you’re not sure about the significance of a particular test or result, don’t hesitate to contact your doctor or clinic or the laboratory where the test was conducted. Make sure to have your lab report in causes obesity thesis, hand when you ask your questions so you can be specific. Diabetes is a group of what family means to me, metabolic disorders defined by an inability to produce or respond to causes of childhood obesity, the hormone insulin, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels. While the bodily processes that lead to essay writing service law, different types of diabetes are distinct, most of the causes obesity, tests used to diagnose diabetes do not specify which type is present and can be used interchangeably. The main tests used to diagnose diabetes are the fasting plasma glucose test, the oral glucose tolerance test, and the HbA1c test. A fasting plasma glucose test is simply a blood glucose test that is conducted when the person has not had any caloric intake for at least eight hours. Using this test, diabetes is analasys essay defined as a blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl (milligrams per thesis, deciliter) or higher.
A level between 100 and 125 mg/dl indicates prediabetes, while a level between 70 and 99 mg/dl is considered “normal.” Since conditions other than diabetes (including stress) may elevate blood glucose levels temporarily, a doctor may order a repeat test or a different type of test if the results of a person’s fasting plasma glucose test are borderline or are high in essay writing, the absence of diabetes symptoms. The oral glucose tolerance test is more complicated and is used less frequently for of childhood, diagnosis than the fasting plasma glucose test. For this test, the person drinks a solution containing 75 grams of glucose. Two hours later, a blood glucose level of 200 mg/dl or higher indicates diabetes. While the HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c, or glycated hemoglobin) test has long been used to evaluate long-term blood glucose control in people with known diabetes, only in 2010 was it approved as a diagnostic test by the American Diabetes Association.
An HbA1c level of means, 6.5% or higher indicates diabetes when the test is used for diagnosis. Thesis! If a blood glucose reading is like a snapshot, indicating the glucose level at the time of the test, an HbA1c result is like a long-exposure photograph, giving an estimate of the essay society, average blood glucose level over the past two to three months. Type 1 diabetes usually sets in earlier in life and of childhood obesity thesis, develops rapidly, while Type 2 diabetes usually develops gradually in middle or old age. If your diabetes was diagnosed after age 50, it was probably assumed to be Type 2 without any further testing. Initial treatment for Type 2 diabetes usually involves recommendations for impact corruption, dietary changes, increased physical activity, and the oral diabetes drug metformin. If these measures fail to lower your blood glucose levels, your doctor may order a diabetes-related autoantibody test to causes of childhood thesis, check whether Type 2 diabetes may have been the wrong diagnosis. Autoantibodies are proteins, produced as part of the body’s immune system, that bind to the body’s own tissues and cells as part of an autoimmune attack.
Normally, antibodies produced by the immune system attack outside invaders such as bacteria, viruses, pollen, and analasys essay, toxins, but in an autoimmune attack the immune system mistakenly targets cells that are native to causes, the body. In Type 1 diabetes, the essay law, immune system attacks the obesity, insulin-producing beta cells of the thesis funding, pancreas. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is causes thesis mainly caused by the body’s resistance to insulin and doesn’t involve an autoimmune response. Thesis Princeton! Autoantibodies for Type 1 diabetes are present in about 95% of people with the condition. Using the diabetes-related autoantibody test can thus help your doctor distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. If it turns out that you actually have Type 1 diabetes, your doctor will prescribe insulin and thesis, probably take you off any oral diabetes drugs.
In some cases, a person with autoantibodies will be determined to have not Type 1 diabetes but LADA, or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Essay Impact! The criteria for diagnosing LADA are still somewhat controversial, but generally people who have it are adults when they are diagnosed with diabetes, have autoantibodies, and do not immediately need insulin, the way people with Type 1 diabetes do. Of Childhood Thesis! However, while some people with LADA can use oral diabetes medicines initially to manage their blood glucose levels, all will eventually need to use insulin, and some practitioners believe it is best to what to me essay, start insulin immediately because it may help to causes obesity thesis, preserve the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Another, less common type of diabetes is monogenic diabetes, meaning it is service caused by a gene mutation. Thesis! The most common types of monogenic diabetes are maturity-onset diabetes of the young, or MODY, and neonatal diabetes.
There are actually several different types of essay corruption, MODY, each caused by a different genetic defect. Causes Of Childhood Thesis! MODY tends to run in families and to cause symptoms before age 25. If a doctor suspects MODY, a genetic test can confirm it. Treatment varies depending on essay service the specific genetic defect. Neonatal diabetes occurs within the obesity, first six months of life and can often be treated with oral drugs rather than insulin. Portable blood glucose meters are what enable people with diabetes to about like my school, see the effects of their past actions and of childhood obesity, make decisions about analasys essay, future ones, particularly in the areas of food, exercise, and insulin injections. These devices use a blood sample from a fingertip (or sometimes from another part of the body, such as the palm or forearm), which is obesity thesis applied to a test strip and inserted in the meter to produce a result in seconds.
To get the most accurate readings from your meter, it’s important to thesis funding princeton, follow all of the recommended steps for obtaining a blood sample and applying it to the test strip. Obesity Thesis! That includes washing your hands before lancing a finger, since even a tiny amount of food residue on your finger can lead to a high blood glucose reading. It’s also a good idea to test the meter itself periodically with the control solution provided by the meter manufacturer. Sometimes a physician will order a fasting plasma glucose test to analasys essay, evaluate a person’s diabetes treatment plan. If yours does, you can use it as an of childhood thesis, opportunity to compare your meter results to the laboratory glucose test by monitoring (using blood from your finger) just before you have blood drawn in the lab. (You’ll then need to keep a record of that result until you get your lab results back.) Because the blood samples used in portable meters are taken from essay writing law capillaries, and the blood samples used for laboratory tests are taken from veins, the two tests will produce slightly different results, even when the samples are taken within seconds of each other. Thesis! Compared with laboratory tests, portable blood glucose meters have an family means to me, accuracy level of ±20%. This means that if your laboratory result is 100 mg/dl, your meter result may be anywhere from 80 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl. While self-monitoring is important for daily decision-making and for detecting patterns, the of childhood obesity, most important lab test for evaluating long-term blood glucose control is the HbA1c test.
This test measures the percentage of hemoglobin A a molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen that is attached to glucose. When hemoglobin A is bound to glucose, it is said to be glycated (or glycosylated), and it remains so for the life of the cell. Red blood cells remain in circulation for about 120 days, and then they are replaced by new, nonglycated red blood cells. Family Means To Me! So measuring glycated hemoglobin A, or HbA1c, is an excellent way to evaluate your blood glucose control over the past 120 or so days. HbA1c results are currently reported in the United States as a percentage. The goal for most people with diabetes, as recommended by causes the American Diabetes Association, is to maintain a level below 7%.
Your lab report may also show a result in millimoles per mole (mmol/mol), along with an thesis funding, estimated average glucose level (eAG) expressed in milligrams per deciliter. Rather than being a separate measurement, an causes obesity thesis, eAG is simply an essays, approximation based on your HbA1c level. In reality, the relationship between average blood glucose level and HbA1c is not exact; two people with the same average glucose level can have different HbA1c levels, and the relationship between average glucose level and HbA1c can vary over time even within the same person. Of Childhood Thesis! But because the analasys essay, eAG is causes of childhood obesity thesis expressed in the same units used by your blood glucose meter, it can make your HbA1c level more readily understandable. In some people, measuring HbA1c may not be useful. Asher! Reliable HbA1c testing depends on causes red blood cells being composed mostly of hemoglobin A. Problems arise when another type of hemoglobin predominates, such as hemoglobin S in what essay, the case of sickle cell anemia. Ruptured red blood cells, excessive hemorrhaging, pregnancy, recent blood transfusions, and iron deficiency can also make the HbA1c test undependable. Fortunately for thesis, these cases, glucose is thesis funding princeton also attracted to proteins in causes of childhood obesity thesis, the blood. When glucose attaches to a protein molecule, the combination forms fructosamine, also known as glycated serum protein. Proteins remain in the bloodstream for two to three weeks, so the test shows your blood glucose control over the previous two to graduate essays by donald asher, three weeks.
Measuring fructosamine can also be a useful option when you’re just starting or have recently modified your diabetes treatment plan. Causes Of Childhood Obesity Thesis! Just as with HbA1c, a high fructosamine level indicates that blood glucose has been elevated, and a normal fructosamine level indicates good blood glucose control. If your blood glucose or insulin level is so low that your body cannot use glucose as an energy source, the body mobilizes another source of energy: fats. Family To Me! The breakdown of fats produces ketones, chemicals that in low concentrations are harmless but in higher concentrations can disrupt the body’s acidbase balance. The combination of low insulin levels, high blood glucose, and dehydration is called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and obesity thesis, it is a medical emergency. The measurement of ketones is not a part of routine laboratory testing, but you can test your urine or blood for ketones at home, and if you were to arrive in the emergency room with symptoms of analasys essay, DKA, the ER physician would immediately order a ketone test. (Only certain home meters can test for of childhood thesis, blood ketones.)
Symptoms of ketoacidosis, which tends to develop over essay society, several days, include excessive thirst, frequent urination, rapid breathing, nausea, and dehydration. Obesity Thesis! The breath may also develop a fruity odor from ketones entering the lungs from the bloodstream. Graduate Admissions Essays By Donald! It occurs most commonly in people with Type 1 diabetes when their insulin levels are too low, but it can develop in people with any type of diabetes, especially when they are sick. If you have symptoms of DKA, you should call your physician immediately. The American Diabetes Association recommends that most adults with diabetes who are not taking cholesterol-lowering statins have a fasting lipid profile done at diagnosis, first medical evaluation, and every five years thereafter, while those taking statins should have the test done when they start the medicine and periodically thereafter. This test measures HDL (high-density lipoprotein, or “good”), LDL (low-density lipoprotein, or “bad”), and total cholesterol, as well as the level of triglycerides in causes thesis, the blood. HDL cholesterol above 50 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol below 100 mg/dl, and essay writing, triglycerides below 150 mg/dl are levels considered to pose a low risk of cardiovascular problems. Recent research shows that for causes, people with diabetes, meeting the admissions, guidelines for blood pressure and cholesterol control are more important than meeting the guidelines for blood glucose control in preventing cardiovascular disease.
Diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease related to diabetes) is the leading cause of kidney failure in obesity thesis, the United States, and it can develop in people with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes (as well as in those with rarer types of diabetes). But signs of kidney dysfunction develop long before kidney failure sets in. Analasys Essay! And when diminished kidney function is detected early, steps can be taken to stop or slow any progression. This is why the of childhood obesity, American Diabetes Association recommends that people who have had Type 1 diabetes for at least five years undergo an thesis funding princeton, annual test for albumin in their urine, that people with Type 2 diabetes undergo this test at diagnosis and annually thereafter, and that everyone with diabetes and high blood pressure have this test annually. Albumin is a protein that leaks into the urine when kidney function is causes diminished. In addition, these people should have their blood creatinine level measured at least once a year. Creatinine is a by-product of normal muscle breakdown whose level in essay corruption society, the blood can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys.
A GFR of 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (milliliters per minute per 1.73 square meters) or higher is considered indicative of normal kidney function unless other evidence is of childhood thesis present (such as albumin in what means to me, the urine). In that case, even with a “normal” GFR, a person is considered to have Stage 1 kidney disease. A GFR of 6089 indicates Stage 2 kidney disease, 3059 indicates Stage 3, and causes of childhood, 1529 indicates Stage 4. A GFR below 15 indicates Stage 5 (end-stage) disease, or kidney failure. Essay About My School! Each stage of obesity thesis, chronic kidney disease requires taking different steps to princeton, manage the condition. However, at any stage including before kidney disease begins its development or progression can be slowed through blood glucose and obesity thesis, blood pressure control. Thousands of laboratory tests are now available to assist in graduate asher, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases; according to the American Society for Clinical Pathology, “laboratory test results may influence up to 70 percent of medical decision making.” Understanding why a lab test is prescribed, what its results mean, and causes of childhood thesis, how those results inform medical decisions can help you forge a cooperative partnership with your health-care team. The more you know about your health, the analasys essay, more power you have to ensure that your future remains a healthy one.
Judith Grout is of childhood thesis a Clinical Laboratory Scientist and freelance writer living in Glendale, Arizona. Disclaimer Statements: Statements and opinions expressed on this Web site are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the publishers or advertisers. The information provided on admissions asher this Web site should not be construed as medical instruction. Consult appropriate health-care professionals before taking action based on this information. Chicken with Spinach and causes of childhood, Artichokes.
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7 Resume Tips for New Grads and Millennials. Congratulations! After all your hard work you’ve finally made it – you’ve crammed for your last exam and kept your bloodshot eyes pried open long enough to causes obesity finish your last term paper. You’ve got that coveted piece of paper that designates you as a college/university graduate – now what? Land your first job out of school, of course! Sounds simple enough but trawling job sites, filling out your umpteenth job application, and checking your phone 297 times a day isn’t going to get you noticed. So, what will? Well we asked some of our favorite HR professionals and recruiters to provide their tips on how to get you AND your resume noticed. Take a look. Writing Service Law! Tim Sackett , President of HRU Technical Resources: Let the causes of childhood obesity, organization and hiring manager know exactly what position they should hire you for.
Candidates believe we/talent acquisition pros automatically know what you want based on your resume. Unfortunately, your combination of education, experiences and what essay, life might not make that perfectly clear. Just tell me the job you want, so I don't have to guess. Thesis! Shawn Rogers , Talent Acquisition Specialist, Halogen Software: Always make sure your resume is up to thesis date, but also do not be afraid of networking. Figure out the job you want and causes, then network with people doing that job.
Social media networks like LinkedIn makes this very easy to do. Typically 50% of jobs are filled with referrals, so the more people you are connected to, the better your chances of being referred. 3. Show off your volunteer and extra-curricular experience. Jennifer McClure, President, Unbridled Talent, LLC : Don't forget to include your volunteer activities and analasys essay, your role in school organizations or clubs on your resume as job experiences. Think about the type of position you're targeting in your job search and causes obesity thesis, describe your experiences in similar terms . For example, if you're seeking a marketing position, share how you created materials to publicize a volunteer event, or crafted campaign emails for impact corruption society, a fund raiser, etc. Help potential employers see how you've been gaining related experience through activities and responsibilities outside of traditional employment. Not all experience has to causes of childhood thesis be job experience. Why I Like My School! Tin Thinn , Talent Acquisition Specialist, Halogen Software: Leverage LinkedIn as an online resume. Just because you don’t have a lot of work experience doesn’t mean you can’t use your LinkedIn profile to show who you are and the career path you’re interested in. Help recruiters and hiring managers understand your value proposition — be creative, show some personality but keep it professional.
5. Ditch the “Objective” in your resume. Bailey Borzecki, HR Manager, Dogfish Head Craft Brewery : Ditch the causes of childhood obesity thesis, “Objective” at about like my school the top of your resume. It’s a space waster and NO recruiters spend time reading it. We care about the meat of the resume with your actual work experience and accomplishments, not what you tell us you’re good at. John Fleischauer , Talent Attraction Manager, Halogen Software: Don’t tell me why we should hire you… show me why we HAVE TO hire you. New grad resumes all look the same and almost none of them speak to tangible accomplishments.
Think like a pro wrassler and take advantage of the three seconds the recruiter is going to give scanning your piece of paper. Causes Obesity! Also – think outside of the resume . Behn Dales, Talent Advisor, HandPick Canada : Keep it simple. What Family Means Essay! Don't over complicate things for us or yourself and be clear about what it is you bring to the table. Don't leave room for the talent acquisition team to make any assumptions about your profile. Whether you’re a new grad just starting out causes obesity or a Millennial looking to means essay move your career to the next stage, I hope these tips help you reel in a job you’ll love. Best of luck in causes of childhood your search! Got any helpful resume tips of your own? Leave them in the comment section below. Use this template to identify your career goals and create a plan to achieve them.
Use this template to thesis princeton identify your career goals and create a plan to achieve them. Teala is a Talent Management Consultant at causes obesity thesis Halogen Software, now a part of Saba Software. Analasys Essay! She has worked with teams on a national and global level supporting human resources in areas such as performance management, recruitment, employee benefit programs, training and talent development, workforce planning and internal communications. Teala also has a personal passion for visual arts and design. Check out Halogen Software's new graduate careers program. Obesity Thesis! The latest talent management case studies, ebooks, articles, and seminars delivered to your inbox!
Learn More Will We See You at #HRTechConf 2017? How to Deliver Positive Feedback at family Work. Obesity Thesis! How To Be A Great Career Agent For Your Employees. Try This Mind Trick for Ongoing Performance Management. Thesis! 3 Ways Laziness Can Pay Off For Leaders.
Get our Saba Blog Digest email delivered right to your inbox. Join over 100,000 of causes of childhood obesity your HR peers: Inspiration from leading industry and HR experts. The Saba Blog is your go-to-place for the latest thinking on what family means essay how to develop, engage and retain your talent. Join over 100,000 of your HR peers. Get our daily Saba Blog Digest email delivered right to obesity thesis your inbox. Funding Princeton! Saba is of childhood all over social media.
Connect with us! Inspiration from leading industry and HR experts. Join over 100,000 of your HR peers. The Saba Blog is your go-to-place for analasys essay, the latest thinking on how to causes thesis develop, engage and asher, retain your talent. Obesity Thesis! Get our Saba Blog Digest email delivered right to your inbox.
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essay explicit Get Our Overly Personal. August 22nd, 2012. In a bar, with friends, listening to a man I’ve admired for years saying this: “Enough with the sob stories, ladies. We get it. If I hear one more story about some fucked up sad violent shit that happened to you, I’m going to walk. You win! You win the sad shit happened to of childhood obesity me award!
On behalf of my gender, I decree: We suck!” Laughter. About Why I! The clinking of glasses. Again the secret crack in causes obesity, my heart. Stop telling. The first time I saw my father’s specific sadistic brutality manifest in physical terms, I was four. My sister was flopped across his lap, bare bottom. He hit her thirteen times with his leather belt. I counted.
That’s all I was old enough to do. It took a very long time. She was twelve and had the essay service law, beginning of boobs. Thesis! I was in the bedroom down the hall, peeking out from a faithlessly thin line through my barely open bedroom door. The first two great thwacks left red welts across her ass. Graduate Admissions Essays! I couldn’t keep watching, but I couldn’t move or breathe, either. Of Childhood! I closed my eyes.
I drew on essay like the wall by my door with an of childhood obesity, oversized purple crayon—large aimless circles and scribbles. Not the sound of the belt—but her soundlessness is what shattered me. Still. The second time I saw my father’s naked brutality he came at my mother—I mean the family means, second time I physically witnessed my father looking more animal than man, his embodied rage—he threw a coffee mug at her head. Hard.
He once tried out for the Cleveland Indians as a pitcher. That hard. He missed, and the mug punched a hole through the wall in the kitchen. My sister was long gone—the escape of causes of childhood obesity thesis college. Afterward, there was dead silence in the kitchen. I know because I held my breath. Even air molecules seemed to still. I’d recently written a fifth grade school report on hurricanes. It felt like we were in the eye. My father never struck my mother. She told me it was because she was a cripple.
My mother was born with one of her legs six inches shorter than the other. She said, “He wouldn’t dare hit me,” the lilt of a southern drawl and vodka in her never-went-to-college voice, some kind of messed up trust in funding, her too blue eyes. Instead, he molested his daughters. Our legs were perfect. When I was sixteen a boy older than me asked me out on thesis a date. I was as sixteen as a girl could be. Analasys Essay! Barely able to causes of childhood breathe with the incomprehensibility of my own body. The heat and pulse and lurch. When he drove me home, and parked outside my house, we kissed. Because I was stupid and sixteen I thought we were alone.
I got out of the car, and leaned back in admissions, through his open driver’s side window to kiss him some more, my mouth, his mouth, wet heat and obesity thesis, tongue of youth sliding into youth, and my father, who was standing behind me there in the dark, grabbed me by the ear and dragged me all the analasys essay, way back to the house. My ear became more than red and hot. Then ringing. Obesity! Then pain. I thought he would pull my ear off. Analasys Essay! Briefly, I saw the of childhood obesity, boy step out of his car—did he mean to save me?
I shook my head wordlessly, no. Or maybe it was just in my eyes through the dark. No. He got back in essay society, his car. That night my father hit me with language. Slut. Over and over again. The second time I was molested I was twelve.
I was on of childhood obesity thesis an out-of-state swimming trip with my swim team. Nebraska. Even now, I understand, the hormonal chaos of all of us half-naked in the pool every day of our lives, six to eight a.m., four to six p.m. pushing our corporeal truths up and out—I understand how hard it was for our bodies to find forms for things. A seventeen year old boy named Robert asked me to come sit by him on the plane and share his Walkman earphones—to hear a song he liked. He had one in about like, his ear and he put the other in my ear. The song was “Baker Street” by Gerry Rafferty. As I leaned in causes of childhood obesity thesis, closely, he reached up underneath my tank top and fondled my barely there tits. I kept stealing glances at the airplane barf bag.
But I didn’t move. What To Me Essay! I remember being terrified to move. Not the terror of violence. I didn’t think he’d hurt me. It was the terror of my own body. My nipples responding to causes of childhood thesis this thing that made me want to throw up.
Or just die there in the seat of the airplane. Crashing, crashing. Wishing for it. About Why I My School! “When you wake up it’s a new morning/ The sun is shining, it’s a new morning/ You’re going, you’re going home.” To this day if I hear “Baker Street,” which is mercifully almost never, I can vomit. To this day, I would rather have taken ten plane trips sitting next to Robert than live with my father growing up. The first time a man came at me with a fist I was eighteen.
I passed out. Not from his fist though. I’d passed out of childhood, drunk. Family To Me Essay! When I woke up all my clothes were on the floor, my legs were spread eagle on his bed, and of childhood, I was wet and sticky and sore between them. Graduate Essays By Donald Asher! There was a bruise between my shoulder and my breast. He was snoring, asleep back in bed. Obesity Thesis! I stood up and watched him sleep.
I remember thinking he is beautiful. He had long blonde feathered hair and an astonishingly fit body. Essay Impact Corruption! He did Karate. Competitively. In fact his power and causes obesity thesis, beauty were what made me go home with him from the bar.
I mean I went out of my way to catch his eye, wag my ass, throw my huge mane of blonde lioness hair around. I pretended I didn’t know how to princeton play pool—which my father had taught me when I was ten—so he could “teach” me. He had blue eyes. Standing there watching him sleep, my legs shaking some, I thought, he is beautiful, and I am not, I am stupid, and drunk, and obesity thesis, I deserve this and more. Then I called my roommate from college at 3 a.m. and she and her boyfriend came to get me. I couldn’t find my underwear. Essay Impact! I waited for them in the dark and cold morning on the front lawn. He came out before they got to me and punched me in the jaw—not hard enough to call the cops, not soft enough to keep my ear from causes obesity thesis aching, saying, “You tell anyone you crazy little bitch, I’ll find you.” He smiled. About My School! He handed me my underwear. I waited for my roommate to of childhood thesis pick me up.
I heard a dog bark. Means To Me Essay! I smelled cow shit from Lubbock stockyards. Of Childhood Obesity Thesis! I picked at a scab on family means to me essay my arm like a kid. You’re no victim if you are a drunk ass slut. I didn’t cry. I swallowed it whole. I didn’t tell anyone. In fact, later that year? I went home with him again.
On purpose. The second time a man hit me I was in of childhood, college. The man was a poet. Essay Writing! A pacifist. A hippie. Somehow I believed things like that could matter. But he had a hair trigger rage in him. His father had been career military and of childhood thesis, hit him all through boyhood.
The rage in him sat like the crouch of essay why i dead dreams in his fingers. Poems came out. And that shot to of childhood the bridge of my nose. Probably that’s what drew me to him. Why I My School! It was familiar.
Twice in causes of childhood thesis, my life I’ve been homeless, both times the result of emotional trauma. Both times I woke up under overpasses with no pants or underwear, vomit everywhere, a throbbing pain between my legs extending to my asshole. I’m assuming I was raped. But where do you put the impact, story of rape when there’s no man to blame? I put it the only place I knew how to. Thesis! I put it back into thesis, my body.
I’m trying to tell you something here, but it’s starting to sound like what I’m saying is that I deserved these violences. Let me be clear. I did not. Causes Of Childhood Thesis! No one does. Graduate Admissions By Donald Asher! Ever. But when women tell how it is for them, when they self narrate their ordinary lives, it’s instantly sucked up by the culture—there’s already a place waiting for the story. A place where the story gets annulled. It’s 2012 and I’m still reading about what the girl or woman was wearing that night. Or how she should hold aspirin between her legs.
Or how she shouldn’t say the word “vagina” on the floor of congress. Or how a friend at causes obesity, a bar wants the sob stories to end. What I’m trying to tell you is that violence against writing law, girls and women is in causes, every move we make, whether it is big violence or small, explicit or hidden behind the word father. Priest. Lover. Teacher. Coach. Corruption Society! Friend. I’m trying to explain how you can be a girl and a woman and travel through male violence like it’s part of causes obesity thesis what living a life means. Corruption! Getting into or out of a car.
A plane. Going through a door to your own home. A church. School. Pool. It can seem normal. Of Childhood! It can seem like just the way things are. To be honest, the essays asher, first reason I understand the complexities of of childhood obesity male violence against girls and women is that I went to college and read a shit ton of books—and even that wasn’t enough education—I went to graduate school, where finally, finally, the books that I read and the films that I watched and the art that I experienced and the teachers that I had showed me just how not normal male violence against girls and women—or boys and men—is. Ever. And yet at what, the same time, the of childhood obesity thesis, more conscious I became, the family means to me, more I also understood that the pervasiveness of that violence has saturated the entire culture. It’s both omnipresent, and of childhood obesity thesis, unbelievably invisible in its dispersed and sanctioned forms.
So many times the cult of good citizenship covering over essay service law the atrocities of girls and boys. Causes Thesis! Mothers who go numb. Counselors who ask the wrong questions. Coaches and impact corruption, priests and teachers whose desires are costumed and sanctified by their authority. Neighbors who go blind and of childhood obesity thesis, deaf. Paying bills.
Drinking lattes. The second reason I understand is that I am alive. About Why I My School! Still. Differently. It wasn’t that I did not understand the of childhood obesity thesis, violences against me were wrong. I did. Even at three years of age.
It was that I thought I deserved it, and possibly worse: that deserving it, I could withstand it. Mightily. Heroically. You see? As a righteously indignant defense. I could take it.
As good as if I was some body’s son. It was a choice. When my father raised his hand to me in our garage at why i like, eighteen, I said, “Do it.” When the poet punched me in the nose in my pick-up truck at a stop light, I said, “Get the fuck out of my car or I will kill you.” And I meant it. I’m telling you this because I know I’m not the causes, only one who came of age like this. Up and through male violence. I’m telling you because there are all the things that need to be done “out there” to analasys essay stop it. But then there are also all the things that needed to be done in me. To stop it.
Listen, these are not the of childhood, sad stories. Essay About Like My School! Worse things happened to me. Those aren’t the sad stories either. These stories don’t carry the pathos to signify culturally in my culture. These stories I’m telling you are commonplace.
That’s the point. They just happen and you live them and as you go you have to decide who you want to be. When I was thirteen, in Jr. High, my best friend Emory was beaten and sodomized in the boy’s locker room at school by some sadistic members of the football team. Because he was gay. Or at least that’s what they were aiming at. In truth, Emory had not yet finished discovering his own sexual self. Like my sister, Emory suffered rectal damage the obesity thesis, rest of family means to me his life. They used a baseball bat. Emory says, I’ll never be in obesity thesis, any kind of relationship.
Emory says, my chance at being with anyone, a family, feeling OK, died that day. Emory was also a swimmer, and so after swim practice, sometimes we’d sit in the parking lot waiting for our moms to essays by donald asher pick us up and drink vodka from a flask an older girl swimmer had bequeathed to me. I never knew what to say about what happened. I didn’t even understand it until we were adults. I’m only glad we are still in contact – writing. Of Childhood Obesity Thesis! The tether of words when the world isn’t safe like it was supposed to be. The boys who committed this brutality were never charged. Emory couldn’t bring himself to tell anyone, and anyhow, at that time, there were no laws on essay service the books to protect us anyway. Also, he was instructed by his father’s lawyer that the term “rape” was not available to him in this situation.
I’m a writer. It’s all I really know how to do, besides being a wife and causes of childhood, mother. I consider myself a success story. Because I am alive I mean, and because I think writing and books and art are the reason. As a writer, I’m not so sure I see much difference in the storylines for women and girls who enter the field. Essay Law! I see that some art is of childhood obesity thesis rewarded for being “universal,” and it is written by asher, men. Other art is causes obesity deemed confessional. Or sentimental. Or too subjective. And it is written by women.
I see that straight white men are published in prestigious venues more often than women. Admissions Asher! I see that women are told by editors and agents and publishers to take explicitly sexual or violent or subjective language out of their work unless they can bend the language toward the culture in a way that will sell. These are gendered terms, laden with a force as real as my father’s. I write my heart out. I do. For better or worse. I write my heart out because my heart, well, she was almost taken from me. Every year of of childhood my life until now.
It’s something I can “do.” A verb. Something that has at least a chance of interrupting another girl or boy’s story with other options. Write. Make art. Find others. It’s a choice.
Listen, I know this is a bit of a dreary story. But whenever I get told that, by analasys essay, friends, or agents, or editors, or publishers, I think, if this dreary story is hard for you to live with, how are we supposed to live with you? When my father was thirty, he had all of his teeth pulled. Just bad genes with regard to teeth, I guess. Early dentures. When he came home from the causes of childhood thesis, surgery he turned all the living room lights off, became part of the couch, and turned the admissions asher, television on.
It was a horrible week waiting for his mouth to heal. I don’t know how to say it—things went too dark and horribly submerged. Causes Thesis! If my mother or I spoke, he yelled, but we could barely understand him. Laughter and essay corruption society, crying kept getting caught and thesis, confused in graduate admissions essays asher, my throat. My mother made soup. Mashed potatoes. Ice cream. I drew on the walls in my room. It was like his rage had gone underground, under the beds, the thesis, house, the dirt.
But we could feel it, pulsing. Pervading everything. They sent his teeth home with him. I never understood that. I just know I stole one. What Family To Me Essay! A molar. Off white as a baseball and like a wrong pearl.
I have it still. Sometimes I think about the children that didn’t come out of causes thesis me. Four. Three of them were zygotes. The zygotes were sucked out of me in what can best be described as a process involving a hoover upright old-school vacuum.
That’s what it always looked like to me. Though medical technology has advanced since I was in my teens and twenties. And yet it’s 2012 and I keep reading about ideas like forced sonograms where the newly or barely pregnant woman is made to watch. Princeton! I saw a congressman interviewed who actually said, “Well, no one can really be made to of childhood ‘watch,’ the woman could just close her eyes.’” While a camera wand is shoved up her. What Family Means To Me Essay! It makes me think of the film A Clockwork Orange. It makes me think how yes we are forced to watch, every day of our lives, we are forced to watch how our culture still doesn’t get what it means to live every moment of causes obesity thesis a life in the body of a woman. The zygotes that did not become children—I think about them.
Who would they be? Would they have lived? It’s a question I feel I’ve earned the right to, since one of the essay, children who came through my body died—nothing wrong with my body or hers, sometimes babies just die. Though for more than a decade I believed it was my body that killed her. My body I’d made into a war zone to mirror the culture as I saw it. When Christians in particular talk to thesis me about “killing babies” and abortions, in my head I think, trust me, I know the difference between a dead baby and a zygote. Once a white Christian woman with shellacked blonde hair and like my school, the smallest green eyes I’d ever seen told me I was going to hell on my way in to Planned Parenthood. I thought to myself, lady, I’ve been there and back.
Only it was called “family.” Those zygotes, would they be boys? Girls? Would I have survived? I had no money during that part of my life. I stole food and did things I’m not proud of so that I could eat and have shelter and go to school.
I also worked three jobs. And still I needed food stamps, just to stay alive. What would they have eaten, the three zygotes, where would they have lived? Would there have been a man under the beds, house, down in causes thesis, the dirt, his rage and thesis funding princeton, violence waiting? Would I have let him in the door, his face so familiar I couldn’t recognize it? I carry deep shame in my body for the zygotes. I don’t know a single woman alive who is “happy” to causes obesity have had an abortion. Or two. Or four. What Family Essay! And it’s not just me.
Other women. Thesis! Republicans. Writing Service! Democrats. Unaffiliated women. Atheists. Christians. Muslims. Causes! Buddhists. Armies of us walking around carrying our body secrets. Our shame over the zygotes. Or maybe there’s something deeper than shame—maybe there’s a second self I had to kill in order to service law live.
The Lidia who believed she deserved it. Could take it. Should. It was a choice. My father’s tooth is in a pink plastic box that was my mother’s. Inside it too, a lock of my hair and two of my baby teeth and that little bracelet they used to give babies that spells out obesity thesis, L-I-D-I-A. I’m the one who put my father’s tooth in thesis funding princeton, there after my mother died. Obesity! I don’t know why. Admissions By Donald Asher! Sometimes I get it out and look at it—hold it in the palm of my hand. Thesis! So small.
The man who terrorized us. His DNA. So large the what family essay, culture that let him. I am a survivor of sexual abuse and male violence. I’ve had three abortions.
I also had one baby girl that died the of childhood thesis, day she was born. I have a husband and a son now. Essay Writing Law! My husband plays cello, and makes films and writes, and in of childhood obesity, the evening he hits the heavy bag; he’s proficient at Muay Thai and Jiu Jitsu. My son can’t throw a baseball properly to save his life. Writing Service Law! His favorite color is purple. He draws and draws.
Me, between them, I am alive, unflinchingly. By the authority vested in me as President by causes obesity thesis, the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is what means essay hereby ordered as follows: Section 1 . Policy . (a) Recognizing that gender-based violence undermines not only the causes of childhood, safety, dignity, and human rights of the millions of individuals who experience it, but also the public health, economic stability, and graduate essays by donald asher, security of nations, it is the policy and practice of the executive branch of the United States Government to causes obesity have a multi-year strategy that will more effectively prevent and respond to essay society gender-based violence globally. Lidia Yuknavitch is the author of the novel Dora: A Headcase, a modern farce, and The Chronology of Water. And some other books. She writes and teaches and loves and mothers in Portland, Oregon.
Explicit Violence will appear in the forthcoming anthology, Get Out of My Crotch, due from Cherry Bomb Books in 2013, co-edited by Kim Wyatt and Rumpus columnist Sari Botton. You can find her around. More from of childhood thesis this author →