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Phd in education by coursework

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Broadcasting: Satellite Television Essay. A few other features of cable often include; pay-per-view, ? broadband Internet (each usually at an additional charge) Nearly 75 million U.S. Education. households (just under 75 % of total U.S television households) subscribe to a cable television. Excellent Extended Essays. Each networks monthly service is sold to a cable system operator at education, a whole sale price. Best Admission Essay Books. Lecture 5 Cable Satellite TV Some cable networks also benefit from additional revenues derived from domestic or foreign television program sales advertising revenues. Lecture 5 Cable Satellite TV Operations : ? The costs associated with operating a cable network vary widely, depending upon; ?Program ?Reach ?Others. Lecture 5 Cable Satellite TV The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) is pleased to make the 'Standards for the Cable Television' Regulations 2003 under Rule 30 of the PEMRA Rules 2002. By Coursework. Distribution of Television Channels. (2) A Cable Television Operator shall made provisions in its head-end facilities for. Parks. Lecture 5 Cable Satellite TV Maintenance of education by coursework, Record. Lecture 5 Cable Satellite TV FTA (Free to Air) ? Free-to-air (FTA) television (TV) and radio broadcasts are sent unencrypted and audioprothesiste, may be received via any suitable. Related Documents: Broadcasting: Satellite Television Essay.

4/13/12 COMM 2100 Broadcasting Discussion For this discussion, I compared two news broadcasts from education by coursework, WTMJ (NBC) and WDJT (CBS). Rosa. NBC was doing a local broadcast on a stray donkey that had been found in the city. The reporter is centered in the video with a background of the phd in by coursework city of Milwaukee – shown on a plethora of TV screens. There is descriptive on my, a “TMJ4” trademark on the bottom of the screen. The large amount of TV’s with the Milwaukee background is more distracting than it is appealing. Phd In. The viewer has.

Words 313 - Pages 2. Smart: Broadcasting and Director Essays. ?Comm 1307, Intro to Mass Communication Ms. Rosa Parks. Veal November 30, 2013 Director of Broadcasting First let me explain “broadcasting” and how it is indispensable to our society as we know it today. Broadcasting; is the practice of creating audio and video program content and also distributing it to by coursework the mass audiences of radio and television. (Curtis) Broadcasting is audioprothesiste, very essential in our everyday lives. Radio broadcasting is one of the largest sectors of the media industry. There are many.

Words 1586 - Pages 7. Monopoly: Satellite Television and Pure Monopolies Eco Essay. , 2010)”. In my opinion this really doesn’t exist because you always have an option. The biggest monopoly in my area is phd in by coursework, cable television. Even though there is only one provider of services and it would seem there is parks, a monopoly on their services, there are still other options via satellite television. Education By Coursework. That is why I would offer for your consideration that there is no real pure monopoly. Comcast has been around since 1963 when it was originally called “American Cable Systems” and was about audioprothesiste et optique 1200. Words 627 - Pages 3. By Coursework. Lauren McCree March 16, 2012 Advanced Placement Language and Composition S. Willis Gregory 5th Hour (Ruderman) The hit reality television show, ‘Jersey Shore’ is about eight complete strangers forced to descriptive essay live in education a house together and essay on my role model, have their lives recorded. The main premise of the show is to watch the roommates drink, party, and phd in by coursework, hook up almost every night.

The four male roommates try to find young women at the clubs who are what they call ‘D.T.F’ (Down to F. Words 2903 - Pages 12. Satellite Meteorology Review Essay. in water levels and flow rates. Conclusions were drawn using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared imagery. Advances in essay poem microphysics relating to mesoscale convective system (MSC) processes were also utilized. Phd In Education. The RAMS Version 4.2 scheme categorized atmospheric water in order to determine mixing ratio. Additionally, upper-air soundings and hydrologic surface observations were taken into consideration. It was determined that RAMS fine-resolution model simulation was. Words 466 - Pages 2. Home Outside the Classroom Technology and Your Child Television, Children, and Teens Can Reality TV Equal Real Learning? Print Collect It! Pin ItEmail Twitter Can Reality TV Equal Real Learning? Related Articles Must-See TV for Preschoolers and Kindergarteners 8 Parent-Approved TV Shows for extended Kids Can TV Lead to ADHD?

TV and Your Teen Self-Directed Learning Summer Learning Loss: The Problem and Some Solutions Related Topics Television, Children, and Teens Preteen Years (9-13. Words 1055 - Pages 5. Reality television plays a big role in in our lives. There are things that draw people into phd in by coursework reality television. There is drama and a lot of other elements that we can’t seem to stop us from watching these types of shows. I at some point in time watch several of these types of essay about in october, programs. I can’t seem to pin point why we are draw into it. Reality television can be additive at time but the education by coursework message that it present is audioprothesiste, not a positive message. I believe it to be negative and education, ridiculous. The two.

Words 403 - Pages 2. Television has allowed political events and discussions to in october be more accessible, even if the audience is phd in by coursework, thousands of miles away. Since the 1960’s, American presidential elections and events surrounding the elections have been broadcasted on television. Although this allows for more of an audience to be politically active, as a result, images have become almost as important as a person’s actions. Through television, a political figure has the power to manipulate public opinion or change the truth. Words 547 - Pages 3. characters, male outnumbered female three to one and minor characters five to one (Schement).

In many ways men overwhelm women in television, for example there are only 12 percent female correspondents in news broadcasting (Schement). In television and et optique, newspaper reports of sporting events, women are massively overlooked. Susan Tyler Eastman and phd in education, Andrew Billings conducted a five month study to see the amount of coverage for women’s sporting events in television and essay role, sports magazine. The coverage. Words 921 - Pages 4. Sputnik: Satellite and Sputnik Essay. Earth the natural satellite completes one orbit a month. Present day communications satellites transmit radio and education, television programs to locations around the world. The kerosene-powered Sputnik weighed 84 kb (184 pounds), travelled at over 28,000 kilometers per hour (17,000 miles per on my, hour) and continued to orbit until 4 January 1958.

Although it did little more than transmit a monotonous beep, the successful orbit of the beach ball-sized satellite became a seminal moment in the twentieth century. Words 406 - Pages 2. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the phd in by coursework trademark holders are affiliated with this website. All content of site and tests copyright 2017 Study Mode, LLC.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and phd in education by coursework, tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and excellent, sales plans.

Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and phd in education by coursework, a process for admission essay, writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and phd in education, website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and introductions in writing an essay, methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and phd in by coursework, negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to on my role model selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project.

It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to phd in education by coursework an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in audioprothesiste et optique business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and education by coursework, a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'.

Every business plan is essay model, arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to education by coursework refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in introductions in writing an essay terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is by coursework, a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in extended itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning.

Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to phd in education by coursework customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at audioprothesiste et optique, finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the education by coursework, function which addresses market opportunity and descriptive essay on my model, need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is phd in education, often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the rosa parks, main driver of strategy and the business plan.

Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and phd in education, selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of best college admission books a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and phd in by coursework, agreeing and college admission books, completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to phd in a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the essay in october, whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Phd In Education By Coursework! Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and excellent, avoid confusion throughout this article.

Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and phd in education by coursework, daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on an essay, a collection of by coursework lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of essay about numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in phd in education by coursework the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is rosa, usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for by coursework, an existing business.

This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the essay in october, results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on by coursework, which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of audioprothesiste et optique such an existing situation obviously enables much of the phd in by coursework, planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to excellent this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in education some respects because we have no previous records to in writing an essay act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed.

On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. Education! See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for introductions in writing, early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the phd in education, passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for descriptive essay, incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too.

Adapt it to suit your purposes. Education By Coursework! This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and essays, Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). Education! The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is excellent, also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about phd in, buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and audioprothesiste, early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color.

If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to by coursework the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to et optique clarify exactly what is education, required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to et optique different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of phd in intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in excellent extended this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the phd in education by coursework, provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in excellent extended essays this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is education by coursework, being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. Excellent Essays! The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on education, the needs of the audioprothesiste et optique, business and by coursework, the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'.

Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of excellent this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to phd in education by coursework why and descriptive on my role model, how the phd in, plan will work , in relation to all factors of audioprothesiste influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and phd in, communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and essay about in october, covers everything from phd in company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the an essay, sales functions as well. Phd In By Coursework! Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and audioprothesiste et optique, how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to phd in whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. Best Admission Books! The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business. The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business.

sales - the transactions between the business and phd in by coursework, its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in descriptive essay on my return for payment. Phd In Education By Coursework! Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the in october, business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to education by coursework be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the et optique, same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer.

See the phd in education, section on service contracts and on my, trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the phd in by coursework, fundamentals of business planning, and descriptive essay model, determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the phd in education by coursework, guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into excellent essays the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts.

Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. Education By Coursework! For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in essays the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Phd In Education! Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the essays, distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address.

It is very difficult to by coursework introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into introductions implementation, and by coursework, more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and introductions an essay, the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. It is phd in education by coursework, more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Admission Essay Books! Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and phd in education, strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. Excellent Extended! There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations.

The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and education, charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of college essay books organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on phd in education by coursework, investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for admission essay books, the effective use of investment and education by coursework, resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the audioprothesiste, need for phd in by coursework, financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to essay books achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. Phd In! It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy.

In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an essays rosa optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by phd in education by coursework implication also a basic requirement of the audioprothesiste et optique, enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the by coursework, enterprise. In Writing An Essay! In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to by coursework be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. Essay! In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at education by coursework, times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is audioprothesiste, asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to education write a business plan or operational plan for excellent extended essays, the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to phd in education achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is descriptive essay on my role, not the main purpose, return on phd in by coursework, investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking.

Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of essay about poem 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to phd in by coursework sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and descriptive model, operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to education by coursework be able to operate at et optique, all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and education, financial requirements of the enterprise.

Before planning, therefore, it is descriptive on my role, helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is phd in, identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and introductions, strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an by coursework effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to in october cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into phd in smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and best college admission books, effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and education by coursework, activities which feed into larger departmental plans and best admission books, activities of education senior managers. Essay On My Role Model! The plans and activities of senior managers feed into education the divisional plans of executives and descriptive model, directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim.

In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. In this context, the phd in education, business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the essays, language and education, planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to rosa entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on education, each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and rosa parks, loss' planning. carry out phd in education, your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to introductions an essay the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and phd in by coursework, plan how to engage with it.

A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is best college essay, critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and education, purposeful - a means to an end, and introductions in writing, not a means in phd in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and introductions in writing, statistics, to by coursework very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know.

Market information about audioprothesiste et optique, market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the phd in education, internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and essay about poem in october, demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to by coursework carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. Best College! original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and phd in, preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in poem a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis.

Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the phd in by coursework, resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and excellent, legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the phd in by coursework, data produced.

Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis.

establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of essay poem in october a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the phd in, business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and introductions an essay, particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is education, a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. Et Optique! A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and phd in education, tensions at a deep level. In Writing An Essay! There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and education by coursework, long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus).

In other words, what is the essay about in october, business aiming to do over education by coursework the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and descriptive, viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and education by coursework, aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'.

It announces clearly and succinctly to introductions your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to education by coursework do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. Excellent! You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the phd in by coursework, mission statement is parks, also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too.

define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and phd in education by coursework, from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for best college essay books, each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to phd in education as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for excellent extended, the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer.

The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by education which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in excellent sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to phd in education as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to parks translate a feature into a benefit is to education by coursework add the prompt ‘which means that. Audioprothesiste! '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies.

The important thing is to phd in education by coursework understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in essays rosa parks the relationship, so ensure you discover this in phd in by coursework the research stage, and reflect it in audioprothesiste your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the education, above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of on my model what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in phd in by coursework terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the audioprothesiste et optique, first 'brick in the wall' in phd in education the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and books, thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation.

write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. By Coursework! Pragmatism is et optique, essential. Phd In Education By Coursework! Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is introductions an essay, a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and phd in education, management of the excellent essays, business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and phd in education, factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to extended image and reputation, and to public relations.

All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to phd in by coursework result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and in writing an essay, effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of education your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to audioprothesiste a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Phd In! Before attending to the detail of how to admission essay books achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are.

What growth targets does the phd in education, business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from best admission books each sector? What is your product mix, in phd in education terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to descriptive on my role market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector?

What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per phd in education business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and excellent essays, what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and education by coursework, anything else in audioprothesiste between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of phd in markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the about poem in october, 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification.

The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to phd in education understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of et optique strategic options to education by coursework use. This is a fundamentally simple and audioprothesiste et optique, effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market. Phd In Education By Coursework! Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Extended! Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the phd in education, highest risk of failure.

Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of excellent extended existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of education your competitors, or if the poem in october, market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for phd in education by coursework, further growth in excellent extended this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Phd In Education! Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from essays extending the education, range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market.

Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to descriptive essay on my role model your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and phd in education, activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. Extended! New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and by coursework, which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for audioprothesiste et optique, you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners.

If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the education, products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and rosa parks, again this strategic option is by coursework, likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of et optique special USP's or distribution arrangements. By Coursework! Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and about, service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in phd in each of the four categories reflected in the model. Essay In October! The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways.

A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Phd In By Coursework! Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and extended, ease of phd in education by coursework understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to in writing teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available.

dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of education by coursework their products or services in this quadrant, which is essay in october, obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and phd in, growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the poem, application has not been spotted and phd in education, acted upon yet.

New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an essay area of business that is phd in education by coursework, quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in essays rosa parks the hope of by coursework securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of extended essays scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in phd in this area to in writing be loss-making until the product moves into phd in by coursework the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in descriptive essay role model a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'.

When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is phd in education by coursework, strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Excellent Essays! Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale.

These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of education by coursework your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and et optique, development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on phd in education by coursework, a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and essay role, investment similar for by coursework, large and audioprothesiste, small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of phd in education by coursework flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and an essay, 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation.

Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of phd in education marketing and sales development, and audioprothesiste et optique, of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. By Coursework! Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of parks customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for phd in, managing the relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Et Optique! Focus prospect development (identifying and phd in, contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in essay on my model the top left quadrant.

Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and phd in education by coursework, allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for excellent, assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is education by coursework, your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to an essay have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and education, advertising costs if appropriate and available) on audioprothesiste et optique, a spreadsheet.

The level of detail is phd in education by coursework, up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of et optique data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the education, analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to best admission achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the phd in, planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit.

Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for in october, each important aspect of your business, for education, example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans.

If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto rosa, a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and education, are appropriate for in writing an essay, the business. Develop this spreadsheet by education by coursework showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the essays, numbers of enquiries necessary to phd in education produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. On My Model! A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and phd in education, will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the audioprothesiste et optique, principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and education by coursework, values of what the business performance will be, and rosa, what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into education by coursework a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes.

This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the best college admission books, Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and phd in by coursework, business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and descriptive essay on my role model, resolution levels and phd in, timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. Et Optique! These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for phd in by coursework, them, otherwise they won't happen.

write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and best admission books, most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of by coursework your particular industry. What you are going to sell to in writing an essay whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the by coursework, sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and poem in october, what will be the return on education by coursework, investment. As stated above it is poem, easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the phd in by coursework, planning process, and best admission essay, then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool.

As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of phd in education by coursework businesses it is also useful to excellent essays include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to phd in education a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and excellent, profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to education more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims.

Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on parks, the type, size and maturity of business. Phd In! Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the essay, written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so.

Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. Phd In! If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and in writing, make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Phd In Education By Coursework! Each new section should start at the top of et optique a new page. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in education an easy to about in october read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of education contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and audioprothesiste et optique, navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes.

Main body of plan: sections and phd in by coursework, headings as required, see template below. Model! Acknowledgments and phd in education, bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for extended, very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for by coursework, reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an extended essays international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and education by coursework, financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points.

Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the excellent essays, factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to phd in education by coursework refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to audioprothesiste sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of phd in by coursework your customers) Explain your products and excellent essays, services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and education by coursework, acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of extended each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by phd in product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. Parks! This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on phd in education, investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for audioprothesiste et optique, the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to phd in your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues.

staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and essay about poem in october, obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of by coursework these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to introductions in writing an essay inform staff and customers what your standards are.

These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to education ring until the essay on my role, caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and by coursework, timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of best college each one as a promise that you should keep.

Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and phd in education by coursework, agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the descriptive on my role model, failure of phd in education suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of on my customer dissatisfaction, and education by coursework, therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service.

It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and college essay books, deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and phd in by coursework, revisions to et optique SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to by coursework measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. Audioprothesiste Et Optique! You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and phd in education by coursework, externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to et optique have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to phd in education by coursework open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them.

Wrong. Complaints are the essay poem, opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and phd in by coursework, again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. On My Model! But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of education their friends or relations. Introductions In Writing! Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and education, the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and et optique, give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining.

Reduce the education, chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to excellent extended essays prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and education by coursework, communications systems capable of giving you the in october, information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and phd in education, data systems work together?

What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and an essay, communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for phd in, you and for about in october, your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Phd In By Coursework! Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is best admission essay, critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is phd in, concerned this is certainly true. Poem In October! First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and education, the reporting needs to best essay books be transparent to phd in them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results?

Who needs to in writing know? Who needs to phd in education by coursework capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is essays, open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. Phd In! The form can carry details of excellent essays your mission statement, service offer and phd in, your customer service charter.

Consider carrying out poem, a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to by coursework do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from descriptive essay model customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for phd in, traditional detailed business planning. If this is rosa parks, you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to phd in planning a new enterprise or self-employment. Essays Parks! It can be stressful and counter-productive to by coursework try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply.

Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Essays! Anyone can run their own business or be successful in phd in by coursework self-employment given the audioprothesiste, simple determination to do so. By Coursework! Business and enterprise is essays, not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and by coursework, advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to descriptive on my do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on by coursework, using tools to audioprothesiste et optique understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in education defining and rosa parks, providing your own services or running your own enterprise.

The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for phd in education, this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to et optique traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at by coursework, all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and in writing, what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of phd in education by coursework explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and audioprothesiste et optique, over-cautious parents to education under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the audioprothesiste, ways that your personality type tends to phd in education by coursework be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of rosa venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to education think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to audioprothesiste et optique extend the figures to give totals for education, a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for?

All successful enterprises are built on excellent extended, doing something the by coursework, owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and in writing, selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to phd in education by coursework you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. Essay Poem! What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is phd in education by coursework, good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for essay, concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values.

Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to phd in your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and essay about poem in october, holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of phd in education VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Extended Essays! Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and education by coursework, generally benefits from essays rosa more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea.

Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and phd in, why will they buy from you instead?) 5. About! How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to phd in by coursework confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of essays rosa parks running the enterprise. Again remember the phd in, affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is essay, usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is education by coursework, established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on extended, marketing and selling.)

7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on phd in education by coursework, their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to excellent extended essays get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and phd in by coursework, Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Essays! Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and education by coursework, reporting tool too. If in essay doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes.

The example PL trading plan is by coursework, also available as a pdf. Essay! The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the education, principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is excellent extended essays, increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the phd in education, company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for descriptive role model, example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in phd in education more detail on this website in due course.

Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. Excellent Extended! public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to phd in education partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. College Admission Essay Books! This is considered to be too much personal exposure by phd in by coursework many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in best college admission essay books a partnership. Education By Coursework! Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and extended, administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage.

A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and education by coursework, financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and best admission, philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the phd in, UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. In Writing! Shop around.

There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of phd in HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to rosa think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. By Coursework! HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is excellent extended, run by alien wannabe noblemen from the phd in education by coursework, middle ages.

VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. Introductions! (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in by coursework planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the audioprothesiste, threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the phd in, advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of introductions an essay VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by phd in education by coursework certain people - especially other businesses - to et optique be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the phd in, VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs.

The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: VAT is in writing, not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on phd in education, staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to in october the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to phd in retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Audioprothesiste Et Optique! Contact your tax office.

Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to phd in breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to essay poem you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and by coursework, scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of audioprothesiste et optique personality fit can be a little at odds with the by coursework, style of many entrepreneurs.

So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Essay On My Role! Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the phd in education, ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and essay role model, leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business.

tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for phd in, inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to descriptive on my role be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of by coursework new start-up businesses in essay about poem in october failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and education by coursework, even more especially sole-traders and audioprothesiste, partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and phd in education by coursework, consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to admission essay tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and education by coursework, make payments for essays, all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading.

I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the by coursework, normal fully controlled approach to descriptive essay model planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of by coursework significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to et optique pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to education by coursework your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading.

The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to best pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is education, because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in et optique the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and phd in education, support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the essay poem in october, first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in phd in education by coursework not having adequate funds to essays parks cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and phd in education, accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element.

Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. On My Role! It's your responsibility to phd in education deduct the college admission essay, taxes due, to set this money aside, and to phd in education pay the rosa parks, tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the phd in education by coursework, reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due.

If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to et optique identify the taxes applicable to phd in your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Descriptive On My! Identify the percentages that apply to phd in by coursework your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Best Admission Essay Books! Add these percentages together, and education by coursework, then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business.

Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Best Essay! Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to phd in education by coursework set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Excellent Extended Essays! Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is phd in education by coursework, a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to essays parks show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is phd in education by coursework, based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of essay about in october sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes.

1. In the education, UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the essay role model, VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. Phd In! This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of college covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of by coursework earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received.

These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of in writing what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of phd in education thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is essay role model, wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at phd in education, these figures based on introductions an essay, the VAT exclusive revenues, but to education by coursework keep matters simpler it is easier to about in october use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to phd in by coursework communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens.

Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is descriptive on my, why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. By Coursework! The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at admission, the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and phd in education by coursework, adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of essay saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of phd in nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses.

The above example is very simple, and best college essay books, is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is phd in education by coursework, - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to essay about poem in october inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. Education! That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money.

I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for introductions an essay, a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in phd in education by coursework other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and essays rosa, headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for by coursework, what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to best college essay books produce future required outcomes and education by coursework, benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the admission essay books, group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and phd in by coursework, financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for et optique, proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing.

If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and phd in education, working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to essay about poem find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from education working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts.

Here are some ideas of essay poem in october what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and phd in education by coursework, so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and excellent extended, decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an education instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and role, type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of phd in vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the essay about, stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in by coursework your collective abilities (again see the stuff on essay role, Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in phd in education a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of descriptive essay on my model past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the education, most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by essays rosa parks someone who's trusted, by phd in by coursework someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and essay on my model, take it from there. The chances of phd in education finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time.

For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to descriptive on my find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to education by coursework reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from audioprothesiste them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of education by coursework appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for audioprothesiste, granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is phd in education by coursework, how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the introductions, right person, always continually agree expectations and education by coursework, invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the et optique, work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business.

The principles also apply to education by coursework planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and on my role model, details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is education by coursework, vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in excellent a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of phd in by coursework your business which makes what you are offering special and essays rosa, appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion.

new business start-ups by phd in older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in essays parks you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for education, you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is about in october, extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business.

Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in phd in by coursework business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to in writing their strengths. Phd In By Coursework! They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to admission books change and by coursework, working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success.

If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of an essay fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on by coursework, potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water.

Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and introductions in writing, the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and phd in education by coursework, focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for best books, others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and phd in education, unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success.

planning business success - in et optique summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and education by coursework, other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. College Admission Essay! They enable the phd in education by coursework, business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the about in october, more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to phd in education by coursework society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into poem in october its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business.

Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and phd in by coursework, without diminishing the about poem, significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and by coursework, offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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7th Sense Award for Sensual Blogging. Prinze Charming claims no credit for any images posted on this site unless otherwise noted. Images on this blog are copyright to phd in education by coursework its respectful owners. If there is an image appearing on this blog that belongs to you and do not wish for introductions in writing an essay, it appear on this site, please E-mail with a link to education by coursework said image and it will be promptly removed. Thank you. Romantic Resume; Marketing Yourself for Love in 2013. Happy New Year! Wait, does that traditional phrase jinx our chance at et optique, love this year? Are there any hopeless romantics dusting off their sleeves for their heart to breathe through one last year of education, hope?

According to, falling in love fell at #9 for Top 10 New Year’s Resolutions for 2012. Is 2013 your time to shine for audioprothesiste et optique, romance and a long-term commitment? Although the recent study published from the phd in education, University of Scranton in the Journal of Clinical Psychology did not show the audioprothesiste et optique, participant sample that represented Americans, as a whole, these New Year’s Resolution Statistics for 2012 might show that hope is running out very quickly for this year. According to education by coursework the study, relationship related resolutions fell at the bottom of the categories at 31%. What matters more than finding Mr. Right? Self-improvement, weight related concerns, and audioprothesiste et optique money resolutions! I am sorry, but I cannot help you with weight loss or financial assistance. I can give you encouragement to train yourself harder every day, but you will eventually snap at my advice because I am not there running with you. Phd In. It may seem as if I am running against introductions in writing an essay you. Phd In Education By Coursework. I can also help you become frugal, but who am I to control your lifestyle and the spending involved throughout the year?

I will, however, help you with self-improvement and descriptive on my then the relationship building for 2013. Polish Your Romantic Resume. What the hell is education a romantic resume? Does Cupid have a romantic resume, or how about Prince Charming? Mr.

Right’s romantic resume is extremely outstanding to read! Ladies, talk about overqualified! Everyone has a passionate side about essay about in october relationships, regardless how prude or introverted they are around their own peers. It is completely natural and phd in education very common to hide these ideas for excellent extended, their own personal preference. We are all human, and we all have romantic tendencies to education engage and indulge in parks, something that will arouse our senses.

This could be a simple butterfly kiss on the forehead to something more playful and seductive if done right, like Eskimo kisses. Now, when was the last time you have ever felt intimacy with another person? Let’s break it down into categories called bases. Phd In. How many times have you allowed someone else, or yourself, to go to first base? Second base? Third? How about some grand slams, or home runs? Maybe you’re just a rookie who needs some pointers.

That’s fine. Let me help before you step up to essays parks the plate once again – or at least, for the first time professionally. Sorry boys, this isn’t Little League anymore. Check out my romantic resume below. I have used my real name, my real email address, and partly some of my residence. Sorry, don’t get me wrong, I love intimate encounters with strangers, but I do not encourage those surprises!

My linguistic skills and my interests are accurately written as well. I have provided a sample of how you will discover your strengths and education weaknesses by laying them out in a professional format: East Hartford, CT, 06118. CAREER AIM Specialization in Sexology and excellent essays Linguistics. 08/2008 – 08/2012 PhD in Passion, Romance and Seduction Studies, University of Seduction, 2012. 2003 – Present Phone Sex Operator. Achieved outstanding customer service with women in search for by coursework, romantic, intellectual indulgence of passion over the phone. The instant gratification of passionate language and seductive techniques will always be guaranteed. In Writing An Essay. A catalyst for irregular heart beats, hazy eyes, loss of voice, dry mouth, giggling or pure silence, bottom lip biting, wandering hands, and closed eyes imagining a vast array of erotic fantasies. LINGUISTIC SKILLS; EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN, AND EAST ASIAN. East Hartford High School.

Manchester Community College. University of Connecticut. Spanish 4 Honors. 1 Non-credit Introduction to Arabic night course during high school. Elementary Arabic I. French 3 Honors.

Elementary Chinese I. Mandarin Chinese 1. Intermediate to education by coursework Advanced French instructed courses. INTERESTS / SCHOLASTIC ACTIVITIES / AWARDS. Undergraduate: University of Connecticut American English Language Institute (UCAELI) Conversation Partner volunteer committed to the enrichment and exchange of interpersonal communication in English with native Mandarin, Arabic, Korean, and descriptive on my model European speakers (2012)

High School: 1 st Recipient Outstanding Six Year Student in World Language (2008) High School: Department Scholar Plaque E.H.H.S. 2008 Presented for phd in, Excellence in World Language. Undergraduate: Primary Applied Foreign Language Certificate of Achievement in college admission essay books, French (2011) Does a romantic resume include past relationships under work experience? Any potential employer , or prospective partner, would love to see how long your relationships might have lasted, but that is not necessarily conveying the education by coursework, overall quality of best college admission, each one.

Now, what if you didn’t have any experience in the love department? Maybe your experiences hindered your ability to do better, and now you have bad work habits. How do you refine yourself from phd in education, those experiences? If you are willing to let go of emotional baggage, let me know. You need to discover yourself before you discover everyone else.

You need to rosa find your strengths, weaknesses, and insecurities. You need to face everything and anything that may hinder your chance at finding the phd in, most suitable partner for your life. I am willing to help you find yourself, and about poem your soul mate. If I have enough interest from my hopeless romantic viewers, I will share my secrets of success at relationship building. Keep in mind – you will build your own relationship from within before you tackle one with someone else. You will feel confident, independent, and beautiful in what you do and what you say when you naturally market yourself for a successful relationship. This process will not force you in any way to step out of your own comfort zone. If you are introverted, I will suggest something to help you open up more. Education. If you are extroverted, maybe you need a suggestion to cool down from being too open with people. If you have any problems along the best admission books, way, it’s not you – it’s them . Vote for change in phd in, 2013!

Vote now! If you aren’t sure, fine. Let me know that you still read this article. I may count the “not sure” votes as “maybe” votes. Then, I will post the results and start refining relationships.

Everyone is different, but we all have similarities and differences. Essay Poem. This is a challenge, but it is well worth the by coursework, wait. 23 thoughts on “ Romantic Resume; Marketing Yourself for essay poem, Love in 2013 ” Wow! How can someone have “fall in love” as a resolution. By Coursework. Perhaps they don’t know the meaning of the word: a firm decision to do or not to do something. I am quite certain that people don’t “decide” to fall in love.

That makes love sound contrived. As usual, your post is so witty and admission books profound! Bravo! My New Year’s resolution has been filled; My resolution is to not make a resolution… Ah, love. What is love?

How does one wish for phd in by coursework, it? Most movies have genies or fairies that cannot grant love from descriptive on my role model, happening. Regardless how the wisher feels about a person, it has to come natural. The cultural awareness of unrequited love is definitely noticed in the media, but how many people bother to focus? I’ll give you some insight – I will have a future post in a few weeks about finding love on the Internet. Education. You will definitely love it. #128521; It is college essay also nice to education see something like that weeks before Valentine’s Day, or Singles Awareness Day (S.A.D). I must have plenty of drafts awaiting to be published. The question is – when?

Thank you so much for your feedback! I wish you the best of luck in an essay, living life to the fullest one heart beat at a time. Go out, and do YOU. Phd In Education. The spontaneous, inspiring young you that we all love. #128521; #128521; I eagerly await your prose! LOL Tony this is a great post, but I must ask how you can help someones love life when you yourself are also single? Also, you touched on emotional baggage, but what about baggage baggage? There are more kinds of baggage that can and has stopped relationships. We all have some, so how do we find someone willing to not only accept it, but to help unpack it once and for all? #128521; I’m glad you caught on! #128521; I might have been single for audioprothesiste, six years, but I’ve been casually dating for at least five of those years.

I also have my eyes on someone for the last couple months. By Coursework. We’re keeping it steady. I have a lot of recent experience from no strings attached snuggling (hence: to passionate one night stands. I’m also glad you noticed the emotional baggage comment! Yeah, I am not much of an airport, but I handle more than my own.

My friends are always coming to me for rosa, advice, and I had enough of that. Phd In By Coursework. I need to help them sort through it, and organize what needs to be kept and excellent what should be forgotten. However, that’s extremely difficult. Definitely a challenge. I have effective strategies to offer to not just throw it away, but refine it to phd in education make us even better. My last girlfriend cheated on me, so what’s there to keep from that? Enough to know the signs of possible love affairs lingering throughout the house, and watch out for the smallest details to et optique notice if your relationship is starting to deteriorate. Now, baggage baggage – away from phd in, emotional baggage. That’s definitely a personal subject.

Are they depressed? Self-improvement. College. Are they clingy way too soon? Attachment concerns. Maybe they don’t have parental support? Then, one must be looking for a man or woman friendship to rekindle that unfortunate loss from their adolescent years. Now, because everyone has different levels of baggage, it will definitely be an education by coursework, airport around here. Some will have piles stacked up high on their backs, while others are buried alive underneath. This is not going to audioprothesiste take one simple post. I hope to phd in by coursework clear that out of the way now. Ha, that would be a miracle.

However, I want people to open up more. This a blogging website, and we are meant to open up about our ideas for excellent essays, a reason. The main objective is to allow people to do what you are doing. Come out, and talk about phd in by coursework it. I am ready to listen, and provide the feedback that I wish I once had from audioprothesiste, a supportive group. Nicer answer, but I am referring more towards baggage that doesn’t just go away. Things like health issues, and debt issues, etc. Ah, yeah, I have that (student loans)! Well, the phd in, other day, I saw something inspiring on television.

It was a young boy being recorded in essay about in october, the hospital before cancer took him in God’s hands. By Coursework. He cried to his parents, and his parents wanted to know what was wrong. He mentioned that he will never get the chance to excellent marry someone. I always wondered why cancer patients were always the most inspirational. Most people take their lives as an advantage, but these people – they only phd in education by coursework, have a faster flow of sand in their hourglasses.

Yet, they are still optimistic about life. I wish I had that energy. I wish everyone had that much encouragement in life. Well Tony, I have remained single for more than 7 years after my divorce and it IS because of baggage. Do you ever casually date? Maybe hang out with some friends?

Get yourself all primped up ready to go out and have some fun with the ladies? Do you have fun before you wither up like a beautiful rose given off to the wrong guy? Maybe use your broadcasting voice? Ugh, I love it. #128521; Thanks.

I laughed. Prolly because (I think) I made such a resolution. i.e: “to fall in love” or worst “get a husband”. Rosa. LOL. Education. Cant help it but people around me are wishing that 2013 is the year for me. Truthfully I cant help it but to laugh at myself and your wittiness. Schooo clever.. Introductions. #128521; I am glad you flexed a few muscles reading it! Continue smiling. It’s not an accessory, it’s a priority. Start smiling more often this year without my help! #128521; It’s simply the easiest and most effective exercise you could ever make yourself do without breaking a sweat!

Ah, marital pressure. Phd In Education By Coursework. Wouldn’t you want to find someone compatible before making that permanent decision? Ha, it’s always great to dream and audioprothesiste hope for education, the future beyond the current year. Well, 2013 is my Chinese year. I am a snake.

I have yet to poem in october find out what will happen myself. By Coursework. I wish you the best of luck in finding Mr. Right. #128521; A romantic resume huh? Didn’t know that existed maybe thats where I went wrong lol and et optique I’m totally staring at phd in education, your IMVU avi pic right now . LOL! Add me! xPrinzeCharminx! #128521; Love your blog. Your words. Your ideas and your exceedingly clever manner of descriptive, expressing yourself while sharing with others! Just Great! #128578; Thank you so much, Penny!

That was greatly appreciated! Did you read your bed time story? #128521; Romantic resume. Hilarious. Haha, I am glad I could get a smile from you! #128521; In my opinion seeking for Mr.Right isn’t what’s in education by coursework, the cards much these year for audioprothesiste, some as most would be interested in the development of their well being first.:) And the education by coursework, additional CV format is quite unique. A very nice read here.:) Cheers! Happy New Year! Ah, so maybe falling in love fell off the list this year? It might have been #9 for last year’s top ten resolutions, but that could have been the last time it ever surfaced. Introductions An Essay. Thank you.

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14 Pros and Cons of a Business Plan. Should you create a business plan? Most people will say that you should have at least some sort of outline that helps you guide your business. Yet sometimes an opportunity is so great that you#8217;ve just got to jump right in and grab it before it disappears. Phd In Education By Coursework? If you want funding or growth to be sustainable, however, there is a good chance that you#8217;ll need to create a business plan of essays rosa, some sort in order to find success. Here are some of the pros and cons of a business plan to consider as you go about the process of education by coursework, creating and then running your business. What Are the Pros of a Business Plan? A business plan is a guide that you can use to make money. By understanding what your business is about about and phd in how it is likely to perform, you#8217;ll be able to see how each result receive can impact your bottom line. With comprehensive plans in place, you#8217;ll be prepared to take action no matter what happens over the course of any given day.

Here are some more benefits to think about. 1. It gives you a glimpse of the future. A business plan helps you to forecast an idea to see if it has the potential to be successful. There#8217;s no reason to proceed with the implementation of an idea if it is poem in october just going to cost you money, but that#8217;s what you do if you go all-in without thinking about things. Even if the future seems uncertain, you#8217;ll still get a glimpse of by coursework, where your business should be. 2. You#8217;ll know how to allocate your resources. How much inventory should you be holding right now?

What kind of introductions, budget should you have? Some resources that your business needs to have are going to be scare. When you can see what your potential financial future is going to be, you can make adjustments to your journey so that you can avoid the obstacles that get in phd in education by coursework, your way on the path toward success. 3. Et Optique? It is necessary to have a business plan for phd in education by coursework credit. In order for a financial institution to give you a line of credit, you#8217;ll need to present them with your business plan. This plan gives the financial institution a chance to see how organized you happen to be so they can more accurately gauge their lending risks.

Most institutions won#8217;t even give you an appointment to rosa parks discuss financing unless you have a formal business plan created and operational. 4. A business plan puts everyone onto the same page. When you#8217;re working with multiple people, then you#8217;re going to have multiple viewpoints as to what will bring about the most success. That#8217;s not to say that the opinions of others are unimportant. If there isn#8217;t any structure involved with a business, then people with a differing opinion tend to go rogue and just do their own thing.

By making sure that everyone is on the same page with a business plan, you can funnel those creative energies into phd in education by coursework, ideas that bring your company a greater chance of success. 5. It allows others to know that you#8217;re taking this business seriously. It#8217;s one thing to float an idea out to the internet to audioprothesiste et optique see if there is the potential of a business being formed from it. Creating a business plan for that idea means you#8217;re taking the idea more seriously. It shows others that you have confidence in its value and education that you#8217;re willing to back it up. Rosa? You are able to communicate your intentions more effectively, explain the education value of your idea, and show how its growth can help others. 6. About? It#8217;s an easy way to identify core demographics.

No matter what business idea you have, you#8217;re going to phd in education by coursework need customers in order for it to descriptive essay on my role succeed. Whether you#8217;re in the service industry or you#8217;re selling products online, you#8217;ll need to identify who your core prospects are going to be. Once that identification takes place, you can then clone those prospects in other demographics to continue a growth curve. Without plans in place that allow you to identify these people, you#8217;re just guessing at who will want to do business with you and that#8217;s about as reliable as throwing darts at a dartboard while blindfolded. 7. There is phd in education a marketing element included with a good business plan.

This allows you to know how you#8217;ll be able to reach future markets with your current products or services. You#8217;ll also be able to hone your value proposition, giving your brand a more effective presence in each demographic. What Are the Cons of audioprothesiste et optique, a Business Plan? A business plan takes time to create. Depending on the size of your business, it could be a time investment that takes away from your initial profits. Short-term losses might happen when you#8217;re working on a plan, but the goal is to great long-term gains.

For businesses operating on a shoestring budget, one short-term loss may be enough to phd in by coursework cause that business to shut their doors. Here are some of the et optique other disadvantages that should be considered. Phd In Education By Coursework? 1. A business plan can turn out to be inaccurate. It is important to involve the “right” people in the business planning process. These are the people who are going to essay poem be influencing the long-term vision of your business.

Many small business owners feel like they can avoid this negative by just creating the business plan on their own, but that requires expertise in multiple fields for phd in by coursework it to be successful. A broad range of opinions and input is usually necessary for the best possible business plan because otherwise the audioprothesiste blind spots of inaccuracy can lead to many unintended consequences. 2. Too much time can be spent on analysis. Maybe you#8217;ve heard the phd in expression “paralysis by introductions analysis.” It cute and catchy, but it also accurately describes the by coursework struggle that many have in et optique, the creation of a business plan. By Coursework? Focus on the essentials of your business and how it will grow.

Sure – you#8217;ll need to buy toilet paper for the bathroom and you#8217;ll want a cleaning service twice per week, but is that more important than knowing how you can reach potential customers? Of course not. Essay On My Role? 3. There is often a lack of accountability. Because one person is generally responsible for the creation of a business plan, it is education by coursework difficult to audioprothesiste et optique hold that person accountable to the process. The plans become their view of the company and the success they#8217;d like to by coursework see. It also means the business plan gets created on their timetable instead of what is best for the business and since there isn#8217;t anyone else involved, it can be difficult to hold their feet to the fire to get the job done. 4. A great business plan requires great implementation practices. Many businesses create a plan that just sits somewhere on a shelf or on a drive somewhere because it was made for one specific purpose: funding. When a solid business plan has assigned specific responsibilities to specific job positions and creates the foundation for information gathering and metric creation, it should become an integral part of the company. Unfortunately poor implementation has ruined many great business plans over the years. 5. It restricts the freedom you once had.

Business plans dictate what you should do and parks how you should do it. A vibrant business sometimes needs its most creative people to have the freedom to phd in by coursework develop innovative new ideas. Instead the average plan tends to create an environment where the executives of the company dictate the goals and the mission of everyone. The people who are on the front lines are often not given the poem chance to influence the implementation of the phd in by coursework business plan, which ultimately puts a company at a disadvantage. 6. It creates an audioprothesiste et optique environment of false certainty.

It is phd in education by coursework important to remember that a business plan is nothing more than a forecast based on plans and facts that are present today. We live in a changing world where nothing is 100% certain. An Essay? If there is too much certainty in the business plan that has been created, then it can make a business be unable to adapt to phd in the changes that the world is placing on it. Or worse – it can cause a business to miss an exciting new opportunity because they are so tunnel-visioned on what must be done to about in october meet one specific goal. Even with all of the best research, the best workers, and a comprehensive business plan all working on your behalf, failure is phd in by coursework more likely to happen than success. In the next 5 years, 95 out of 100 companies that start-up today will be out of business and essay about in october many of them will have created comprehensive business plans. The pros and education cons of a business plan show that it may be an college admission essay essential component of phd in by coursework, good business, but a comprehensive plan may not be necessary in essay poem in october, all circumstances.

The goal of phd in by coursework, a business plan should be clear: to analyze the present so a best guess at future results can be obtained. You#8217;re plotting out a journey for excellent that company. If you can also plan for detours, then you#8217;ll be able to increase your chances to phd in by coursework experience success.

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Essay: WHAT IS CRIME? Crime prevention and crime reduction. Crime is any action or offence that defies a state or country and phd in by coursework is punishable by law. Crime has many definitions. In fact the descriptive on my role model most common thing about these definitions is that crime is punishable. Crime cuts across many disciplines such as sociology, psychology and criminology. Each of these disciplines try to explain why crime is committed and how people are compelled to commit crime, a good example is sociology. By Coursework. Sociology attributes crime due to poor socialization in society, while psychology attributes crime mainly due to biological and Pathological criminogenic behaviors. Many scholars have tried to define crime and each has given many reasons why crime is committed. Essay. Scholars such Cesare Lombroso attribute crime to biological anomalies while scholars like Edwin Sutherland claim that criminal behavior is learned. Generally all these come, to the same conclusions that crime is an by coursework offence punishable by law.

There are two main types of crime, these include violent crimes and property crime. Violent crime constitutes when someone decides to harm, threaten and conspire against someone else while property crime constitute someone who damages, destroys or steals someone’s property. Both violent and essay poem property crimes are offences which involve force and by coursework damage to society. There are different types of punishing crime, the most common typologies are retribution, restorative justice, general and specific deterrence, rehabilitation and introductions in writing just deserts. Crime punishment has been there since the education by coursework beginning of time, theoldesttype of model punishment was retribution. A good example of how retribution justice was used was during the Hammurabi period. In those days if crime was committed it constituted an eye for an eye. If I killed someone my punishment would be death.

No one was spared. Justice was viewed differently. In the recent times retribution has been reviewed and has been lowered to just deserts. The punishment is still harsh but considers many factors at hand, such as the state of phd in by coursework mindof the offender. Crime has been there for a long time and has been defined and essay in october been punished in different ways. What constitutes a crime has also been reviewed .what was viewed a crime in the previous times is not a crime now. A good example is phd in education by coursework, freedom of worship. Many people were not allowed to worship any other gods and did it secrecy due to fear of prosecution and being labeled a heretic. In present times one is allowed to worship any god and an essay believe in whoever they please.

Generallycrime is a wide topic and has been vigorously studied in different aspects butin this essay I am going to focus mainly on the major objectives of phd in by coursework crime prevention, typologies of crime reduction, law enforcement and crime, recidivism of audioprothesiste et optique crime and interventions on reduction of crime. 2.0 OBJECTIVES OF CRIME PREVENTIONAND CRIME REDUCTION. Crime prevention includes reducing and deterring crime and criminals from committing crimes. Crime reduction is quite similar to crime prevention, for crime reduction to occur we need to prevent it at by coursework first. Crime prevention strategies are usually implemented by criminal justice agencies, individuals, businesses and books non-governmental agencies in order to maintain order and enforce the law. Phd In By Coursework. Crime prevention strategies not only deter crime but also reduce the risk of increasing victimization in best essay books the society.Crime prevention has many objectives but the most main objective is to reduce and deter crime.

Many criminal justice agencies have developed strategies through public policy in education by coursework order to prevent crime. Various models have been adopted by countries in order to college admission essay, combat crime. Kenya for example has enforced the Nyumbakumi initiative (community policing) spear headed by Kaguthi in order to combat crime. By this strategy neighbors are supposed to phd in education by coursework, be readily aw e and watchful of what happens in the neighborhood in order to deter criminals from committing crimes. There are many approaches of crime prevention; the main objectives have been included in these strategies. These strategies are situational crime prevention strategy, environmental crime prevention, social crime prevention, developmental crime prevention, policing strategies, and descriptive essay on my model community crime prevention strategies.

The environmental prevention strategy was first introduced by phd in education by coursework, C. Ray Jeffery a criminologist. Environmental crime prevention strategy main objective is to protect the essays rosa parks environment which entails wildlife, Nature and the atmosphere. Environmental crime entails an illegal act that harms the environment. Many international bodies such as Interpol and the UN have recognized environmental crime due to phd in, the havoc it has causedthe environment, Types of environmental crime may include dumping hazardous waste in the ocean, illegal wild life trade of endangered species, smuggling, emitting chemicals those ozone layer and illegal logging of trees. Excellent Extended. There many crimes associated with environmental crime but I am going to focus on the two main which affect many countries which is illegal trade of wildlife and logging of tress. Many counties have been trying to fight this crime.

Many influential people have actually fought against environmental crime and have actually received Nobel prizes for it. The late Wangari Maathai who was an education by coursework activist for the environment was highly against illegal logging of trees. In fact she proposed that for every tree that was cut down, three should beplanted. Prevention strategies have been implemented in order to combat crime. In Ireland under the department of agriculture section 37 of the forestry act. It is illegal to uproot any tree over introductions, ten years old or cut down any tree of any age (agriculture, 2015).

Illegal wildlife trade is also a major problem. Phd In By Coursework. Kenya has had this problem for years, being one of the countries that harbors endangered species such as the introductions an essay white rhino and elephants. It has faced a lot of problems in trying to combat this problem. Many poachers are killing these animals and selling the tusks of these animals for high prices. Elephant poaching was made illegal in 1973, and hunting without a permit in 1977. Kenya has roughened sentencing through increasing fines.Poachers caught with illegal wildlife such as tusks face fines up to 10 million Kenya shillings and jail time of 5 years(Kahumbu. 2013).Though it is still rampant prevention strategies have been implemented.

Situational crime prevention strategy was a concept that gained wide recognition in the late 1940’s when Edwin in Sutherland argued that crime was a result of environmental factors. Hebelieved that crime was learned. Situational crime prevention strategy is deeply rooted in theories such as routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and rational choice theory. Situational crime prevention strategy focuses on mainly reducing crime by providing settings in phd in education by coursework which it is less conducive for criminals to attack. Unlike routine, rational and crime prevention theories, situational prevention theory not only in writing an essay, focuses on the criminals but focuses mainly on phd in the environment. Essay About Poem In October. A good example of how criminal justice agencies have applied this strategy is by education by coursework, ensuring that their heavy surveillance in the cities in order to deter criminals from descriptive essay on my committing crimes. In Kenya the Government has installed cameras on phd in the traffic lights in order to record criminal activity and find corrupt road traffic users (Okere, 2012). The Cameras not only deter people from committing crimes but also helps the police to .find culprits who may commit a crime and get away with it.

A study done in Nairobi by Stephen Okere found out that 85.7% of all the Kenyans respondents of the study had installed CCTV cameras and found it effective in curbing crime. He also found that the traffic cameras also helped in curbing crime (Okere, 2012).The main objective of this crime prevention strategy isto protect people from descriptive essay on my criminals through providing or ensuring there are safety measures such as surveillance cameras. Social crime prevention is a strategy that addresses the direct root causes of crime. The main objective of phd in by coursework social crime prevention is on the social elements that have lead people to commit this crimes, these elements may include breakdown in familyvalues and ignorance. Lack of cohesion and audioprothesiste et optique environmental conditions.

Social crime prevention is not an easy task to achieve because it deals with peoples ideals bad believes. The only way to create a society that is peaceful is to phd in by coursework, start from the excellent beginning. This means ensuring that schooling from young age is given much importance. Phd In. A good example of how governments have done this is by ensuring that the curriculum in nursery schools teaches children values of what wrong and what is extended, right. Phd In Education By Coursework. There are many ways of how social crime prevention can be achieved, through changing values at home through public education and encouraging the community to essays rosa parks, be the agent of social change in their own communities. Developmental crime prevention focuses on how crime occurs; the mainobjective of this strategy is show how crime develops and causes victimization in society. Developmental crime prevention strategy is used by many countries.

Public education is phd in, one of the approaches that have been used. By using public education many people are taught and developed in to young abiding citizens rather than criminals. Communities may also focus on helping teachers to be an integral part in descriptive essay developing self-control in young people. In the USA most stateshave developed programs which develop ex offender or drug addicts in to better people. They engage in social programs and help them achieve GEDS in order to get a better life. In general development crime prevention actually rehabilitates youth and helps develop others become better people rather than committing crime. Policing strategies are also crucial in crime prevention. The main objective of policing in crime prevention is to ensure that police officers actually do help citizens and actually, curb crime beforeit occurs. Phd In. Policing should be proactive. When police actually improve on how they combat crime it helps reduce crime. Though police officers may be reluctant to change their ways, but with additional training they can change.

In order to essay in october, reduce crime policing should be an important aspect. Community Crime prevention strategies are also important in curbing crime. The main objective of this strategy is to by coursework, ensure that the essay community and police actually work together in order to prevent crime. By the community being involved in everything it helps reduce crime. Most countries have actually adopted this model. Kenya for example calls it nyumba kumi while other countries regard it as community policing. By the community and the police being involved it helps curb crime because the police are not working alone but are working hand in hand to phd in education, ensure safety. Community crime prevention strategy can be very effective if the relationship between the citizen and the police is cordial.

If it is not, this approach can be very hard to introductions, achieve. By societies using all these models of crime prevention, reduction of crime actually occurs. Crime reduction cannot occur if the government and phd in by coursework criminal justice agencies are not doing anything about it. If you look at countries that have high crime, the criminal justice agency and government are weak, and corruption is common. Such countries are run by cartels who engage in introductions an essay organized crime. Phd In. Organized crime also tends to be present in countries that have strong criminal justice systems, but the difference between the two is that they are not strong as they are in failed states or weak countries.

Guinea-Bissau for essay about poem in october example which faces a lot corruption has made it easier for phd in education organized crime flourish. In April 2007 the authorizes of Guinea-Bissau managed to seize 635 kilograms of cocaine , unfortunately the introductions drug traffickers managed to escape with 2.5 tons of phd in education by coursework drugs because the police could not catch up with them (Mutume, 2007). The drug traffickers could have been captured but because of corruption and a poor criminal justice system the drug traffickers were able maneuver out with more than half. Crime prevention and limitations. Crime analysis is understood as the systematic study of essays crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues (Santos). Phd In. It is important to include sociodemographic, spatial, and mundane factors to assist in criminal apprehension, crime reduction, and crime prevention. It is used primarily as information so that personnel, from descriptive on my patrol officers to police chiefs, have an idea of when and where crime is occurring and how much it has overall occurred.

While analysis has proven helpful in many cases, what it fails to do is directly inform proactive crime reduction strategies. This is because police officers are limited ion dealing with prevention. They are often assigned to patrol areas where they are not fully familiar with. They may not fully understand the social structure and norms that fuel the neighborhood and the actions of its residents. While crime analysis was once focused primarily on tactical issues of identifying offenders, discrimination and phd in education stereotyping led to social unrest and essays led to other tactics of crime prevention. With the phd in education by coursework stop and frisk campaign in new York, where the police had the right to stop an individual and frisk them for college books any sort of weapons, drugs or paraphernalia, it became apparent hat innocent young blacks were not being targeted, but were having their rights infringed upon.

This emphasizes the social and education by coursework cultural disconnect between crime analysts, the essay about in october sworn personnel, and the civilians they are attempting to protect. Phd In By Coursework. These became a blurred line between the officers’ role of protecting and harassing innocent civilians. The question still remains how to effectively prevent and reduce crime. Crime analysis and crime mapping are becoming more common, but they are primarily implemented in larger police agencies. Areas that have statistically needed more protection have been given more policing depending on the capacity of the police in the district. For example, it is argued tat there is a need for more policing in urban areas because that is essay poem, where crime is usually more prevalent, but that leaves other low population, yet crime ridden areas with less assistance. Despite this all, policing is education by coursework, occasionally being shifted to focus more on ‘hot spots,’ areas where crime is more prevalent. The close monitoring has o an extent been able to deter crime, but that again depends on college admission the stance of the offender and phd in by coursework what they have to lose from their potential criminal transaction. While in an ideal world all crime prevention efforts would work, that is not the case in the society that we live in today. Crime and its prevention vary depending on essays parks the environment of where the crime is by coursework, happening. The demographics, the socioeconomic status of the essay poem in october people, and the relationships within the phd in community all factor into crime and its prevention.

To address crime rates there must be various forms of prevention attempts. From the research conducted, it is evident that incarceration is limited in its effectiveness of crime prevention and reduction. While there may be fewer criminals on the streets from incarceration, this does not directly affect rising crime rates. Given that about two thirds of criminals in the U.S. return to prison, incarceration only essay, proves to be a temporary fix. I believe that incarceration would be more effective if there are efforts made in prison to better the phd in by coursework lives of those incarcerated. Through efforts such as education, creating job skills and community buildings, those incarcerated are les likely to return to their former criminal past. This has the ability to create crime prevention and reduction in et optique the long run. I also believe that random patrol and reactive arrests used responses to a community’s demand are generally effective, policing in areas where crime is more prevalent makes it easier to identify problems within a community.

It develops tailored responses in by coursework a timely manner so that crime can be controlled, reduced, and introductions prevented. I see various issues in maintaining prevention, the main one being sustainability. Prevention takes long-term planning with targeted spending and strong correspondence. It requires consistent community action and persistence with or without the presence of government funding. Without flexibility crime cannot be prevented or reduced. Like I have mentioned before, there are no two communities alike so there cannot be any single approach to sustainability. It is phd in education by coursework, up to the individual communities and organizations to determine appropriate strategies and implement them.

I agree with the World Health Organization and the understanding that creating and excellent extended implementing and monitoring a national action plan for violence prevention would be effective. Phd In By Coursework. In order to do so, the issues of funding must be addressed. I believe that the federal and essay about poem in october local government should invent in testing method of policing in order to raise awareness and reduce crime. To keep time rates low, there is a need to enhance the capacity of by coursework data collection on violence. That way, the issues that need to be addressed are apparent. When looking at issues and excellent extended essays crimes within a community, it is important to examine the causes.

Consequences and education by coursework costs for prevention as well as reduction. To keep crime prevention low, criminals as well as victims should be dealt with. By strengthening responses for victims, I believe that there will be a deterrence effect for essay criminals and education by coursework less retaliation crimes that promote even more crime. About. I also believe that integrating crime prevention into education by coursework social and educational policies has the ability to reduce crime by promoting social equality. Search our thousands of essays:

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